Cable-powered short-range heavy lift technology.

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Pochari Technologie’s cabled lifter technology. In March 2019, Pochari Technologies invented a highly novel aerial lift system. The invention arose out of a need to balance the low cost of terrestrial cranes and the degrees of freedom afforded by a helicopter crane. It was found that since most aerial lift jobs occur relatively close to fixed sites, the actual distance traveled by the heavy-lift helicopter was quite minimal. For many jobs that use heavy-lift helicopters, often it’s not so much range that is desired, but rather height. Another strong impetus for aerial cranes is turnaround time, a heavy-lift helicopter such as a Bell 205 can be operated in the “restricted category” which allows for-profit external load operations as long as it does not operate over populated areas. All over the world, Bell 205, S53, and more recently, ex-Military UH-60s perform heavy lift work installing air conditioning units on rooftops or erect cell towers. Classic cranes have difficulty practically attaining heights in excess of 200 meters, nor can they suspend loads further than at best a hundred meters from their center of gravity. The load capacity of a conventional crawler crane or truck crane might be impressive on paper, but this capacity drops off precipitously as the reach is extended. Moreover, the vast majority of helicopter lift jobs do not fully exploit the aircraft’s unlimited degrees of freedom, it spends most of its time hovering over the lift site and flying slowly back and forth to pick up the load from a truck or storage site nearby, rarely does the aircraft fly many miles with a load underneath. Furthermore, in the U.S it isn’t even legal for most of the restricted category heavy-lift helicopters to fly about over dense areas. The desired operational radius of the cabled lifter is not significantly restricting to its range of potential uses. The ground powerplant vehicle can be situated between 5 and ten kilometers, the width of the Pensionala of San Francisco is around 11 kilometers. To prevent the cable from sagging excessively, a small drone carries the cable mid-span. The weight of a ten-kilometer cable would be approximately 1100 kg, with half of the weight being carried by the lifter and the powerplant truck. In order to fly over obstacles, such as forested areas, the powerplant truck carries a telescoping pole that reaches a height of around 50 meters, providing the cable with enough overhead clearance. What we realized is that if electric power could be transmitted in a high power density configuration to the lift craft, then it could effectively hover all day long without the need to refuel, carry the weight of the fuel, nor use highly expensive turboshaft powerplants. The lifter itself would only need moderately high power density non-superconducting electric motors, a transformer to step down the voltage, and a rectifier to convert the unusable high- -frequency AC power to either DC or 60 HZ AC power. Upon further analysis, it was found all three options were available and light enough to be carried by the lift craft. In order to design a lightweight conductor, the amount of current must be reduced to a minimum, the only way to facilitate this is by increasing voltage. The problem with increasing voltage beyond 5 kV is that electric motors are unable to use the power, so some form of step-down transformer is required, The weight of a transformer operating at 60 Hz is prohibitive, the transformer would many times more than the weight of the aircraft is operating at standard grid frequency. To overcome this, a very high-frequency AC power supply is required, in order to achieve this, Schottky diode-based rectifiers are used to convert the AC power generated by the ground power supply into DC, which is then converted back to AC and “chopped” into the appropriate frequency. A transformer could easily be designed with weight reduced to the utmost minimum by stepping up the frequency to over 100 kHz. Nanocrystalline core material such as Hitachi FINEMET could be employed to achieve a gravimetric power density of >33 kW/kg with minimal core losses. The cost of the nanocrystalline material is around $9/kg, or about $0.30/kW. Nanocrystalline high-frequency transformer cores are constructed mainly from iron with grain sizes below 10 nanometers, the microstructure of the alloy facilities extremely high induction with low losses. Since the high-frequency AC power is unusable by an electric motor, the current has to be rectified back into DC which can be used directly by a DC motor or in an AC motor if rectified back into AC. Using the Schottky diodes, a rectifier with power densities of up to 50 kW/kg could easily be designed. Electric motors are by far the biggest weight contributor, with the current state-of-the-art axial flux electric motors having power densities of around 6 kW/kg at 10,000 rpm. rpm. To minimize the mass of the electric motors, a reduction gearbox had to be employed. Using high-frequency AC power at high voltage, a conductor cooled by the ambient air could be designed with a weight of 110 kg per kilometer. High-frequency conductors can take advantage of the skin effect, at 100 kHz, the skin depth of the current is only 150 microns, which means a large diameter hollow conductor can minimize mass while achieving the required resistance to minimize ohmic heating. The cabled lifter is a simple yet powerful concept. At the most basic level, the cabled lifter is as its name suggests, a flying crane that use generates thrust for its locomotion, but rather than carrying fuel onboard and burning it in a turbine, it draws high voltage and high-frequency AC current from an ultralightweight electric cable that unwinds from a ground vehicle. The concept draws from two fundamental technologies: ducted fan lifters and high-frequency rectification. In order to develop a low-cost aerial crane solution, a far more affordable powertrain system is called for. Existing aerial crane technologies consist almost exclusively of one airframe, the Sikorsky sky crane. The Sikorsky S-64 Skycrane is a classic jet fuel-powered turboshaft helicopter.

Iso-thermal piston compressor using integral cooling channels

Pochari Technologies has devised a novel form of iso-thermal piston compressor.
A dense pattern of relatively thin wall cooling tubes extend out and fasten to the compressor cylinder head, the cooling tubes feature an internal passageway for high heat capacity coolants. The pressure of the liquid medium is set at close to the compressor’s operating pressure to minimize the thickness of the cooling tubes. The piston’s compressor features internal bores to accommodate the space of these cooling tubes. A small gap is left as to prevent any friction between the piston’s female bores and the cooling tubes. As the piston reaches the top of the cylinder assembly, the gas is squared tightly between the female bores and the male cooling tubes, allowing extremely rapid heat transfer into the cooling medium.
Even with the high density cooling tubes, there is sufficient space on the cylinder head for gas exit, since the density of the compressed gas is so much greater than during the inlet stroke, the valves can be quite small. During the intake stroke, a wall-valve similar to a two-stroke is used, or a long residence time can be used. A series of small valves are placed at the top of the cylinder assembly between the extending cooling tubes. In the piston assembly, it would be possible to also accommodate small cooling channels in the space between the female bores. To minimizes the thickness of the metal, it would be desirable to also keep the pressure of the coolant as high as possible. Higher pressure also raises the boiling point of the liquid cooling medium. Water has a boiling point of 375 degrees Celsius at 225 bar, this forms the working principle of the famous pressurized water reactor.
With this iso-thermal compression concept, it would be possible to achieve a complete atmospheric to ammonia-synthesis ready 300 bar in a single compression stroke, massively improving the flow capacity and productivity of a single compressor. Due to the fact that the surface area of the cooling tubes is quite high due to their spacing count and relative small size, the total potential thermal flux is immense. The limiting factor would not be metal surfaces, but the cooling medium which would have to be pumped at a high enough flow rate to purge the heat from the gas compression.

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Lethal high voltage self-defense gloves

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Pochari Technologies has developed a novel lethal self-defense weapon. This is not a “stun gun” or any other ineffectual “non-lethal” self-defense system which uses electricity. Rather, this is a viable alternative to heavy metallic firearms that shoot supersonic lead projectiles to inflict lethal damage upon dangerous individuals. This technology uses no kinetic energy to inflict damage, it uses the power of alternating current to instantaneously neutralize an attacker. This technology is a more elegant, efficient, and simpler way to neutralize dangerous individuals. The core of Pochari Technologie’s AC self-defense suit is the electric vest and electrode-forming gloves.
The weapon forms a mono-piece dielectric vest that is worn underneath normal clothing, the vest is attached to gloves to form an electrode. The basic working principle of the weapon is that the user employs his hands to grab the arms, neck, or legs of the attacker to cause instant paralysis through electrocution while protecting himself from the now-electrically charged victim by wearing dielectric clothing underneath innocuous-looking clothing. This weapon system can be thought of as strategically “feigning vulnerability” as opposed to technologies like open-carrying a conventional firearm, with the intention to lure an attacker as opposed to using strategic deterrence.

Each glove is fitted with small electrically conducting metal strips which carry 120 Hertz AC current at a voltage of 400 V, 120 Hertz is chosen because it is the most dangerous frequency for the human heart. The device provides enough current to pass through from a small lithium-ion battery pack into the gloves to cause instant fibrillation, neutralizing an attacker. One of the gloves is positively charged while the other glove is negatively charged, current will pass from the positive to negative conducting directly through the major blood vessel connecting the heart, blood is especially conducive due to the high sodium content in the body. The user can also have a separate electrode attached to his foot, a metallic assembly can be placed on the tip of the user’s shoes, allowing him to use one hand to grab the victim’s arm and his foot to create a circuit that will pass through the heart.
Alternating current is so lethal that as little as 100 milliamps over a period of 3 seconds is enough to cause death. At 400 volts, this corresponds to 40 watt-hours, over a period of 3 seconds, only 33 milliwatts of electrical energy is expended. A typical iPhone has a battery providing 10 watt-hours of energy, enough to run the device non-stop for 20 minutes, or enough to cause 300 lethal fibrillations. In comparison to a bullet, the energetic efficiency is far higher, in other words, the “battlefield lethality index” is far greater by mass and by energy, since rather than kinetic energy, the alternating current disrupts the heart’s optimal frequency.
If the attacker is wearing thick clothing, the voltage can be stepped up to 1000 or more, but a higher voltage poses a greater risk to the user since a stronger dielectric suit is needed. Since the attacker may have thick clothes on, such as a leather jacket, the glove-electrodes can be fitted with retractable spikes that puncture thick clothing and reach the skin underneath, allowing the current to freely pass through. These very small spikes can be activated using a mechanical spring mechanism with automatic activation using pressure sensors. When the pressure sensors reach their designated threshold of tension, the current is allowed to flow through after the spikes have been released. When the pressure is relieved, the pressure sensors respond and the spikes retract and the current flow stops preventing the user from accidentally electrocuting himself by touching his face. This is all within the realm of 21st-century technology, including sophisticated stress and strain gages used in testing applications that can detect subtle modulations in pressure. Only 200 volts are needed to penetrate human skin and provide a lethal current through the heart, so in most instances where the attacker is wearing ordinary cloth clothing or has exposed skin (wearing a T-shirt or shorts), the user will have no difficulty passing a deadly current into the victim. To illustrate the danger of alternating current, if a person touches a standard European 220-volt plug with both their hands forming a circuit crossing the heart, death is virtually guaranteed unless rapid defibrillation can be provided on the scene, this is because the electricity causes muscle paralysis, causing the victim to clutch on to the electrical source providing enough time for lethal fibrillation to occur. This is extremely important to accentuate, because if an attacker is weilding a knife or firearm, as soon as current enters his body, paralysis will instantly occur preventing him from further utilizing the weapon even if still alive.
The tactical advantage of this weapon is its inherent stealth, namely that the prospective attacker does not suspect the user to be wielding a conventional firearm or knife, this causes the attacker to become complacent and cocky, compelling the prospective attacker to approach the victim and place himself in a vulnerable position, which then allows the user, provided the user is trained and is strong enough, to grab at least two body parts, such as arm or leg, or ideally, both arms, and pass a current through the heart of the attacker, virtually instantly killing him. Even if the attacker has a gun, the user can feign non-resistance and allow the attacker to approach him by placing his hands in the air, as the attacker approaches carelessly, the user can then grab two body parts of the unsuspecting attacker to introduce a lethal current, causing him to be unable to fire the gun as paralysis is instantaneous. In the event of an unarmed attacker who poses merely a physical threat such as wrestling or punching the victim, once the user can mount enough resistance to grab onto the attacker’s body parts, ideally torso and arms, the user can introduce current and thwart the attacker. Immediately after currents enters the body, it causes paralysis, preventing the attacker from letting go and fighting back, after 1 second at 900 milliamps, the victim will experience heart failure unless a defibrillator is available and applied quickly.
The user of the electrical glove self-defense apparatus is protected from cross-current flowing from the electrocuted victim through his cover-all high strength dielectric vest which provides protection against thousands of volts, far more than would be used for this weapon. The user also wears dielectric soles to insure current cannot from the user touching his neck to his feet.
If the attacker has a firearm pointed at the user, the electrical current will not flow from the firearm to the user unless the dielectric suit is punctured. The dielectric suit can be constructed out of PTFE, polyester, and Nomex, with only 0.15mm needed for a breakdown strength of 7 kV.
This extremely powerful technology allows people living in dangerous parts of the world to live their lives safely without fear of assault or robbery. Every human being has an inalienable right to defend their life and safety, and if governments cannot guarantee this to their citizens, it is our responsibility to ensure our safety without needing to resort to risky firearms that are sometimes banned or difficult to access. You might be asking, “But you’re saying I need to wear some special suit and high voltage gloves, isn’t that impractical when I can carry a Glock? Sure, you can say this, but not everyone in the world has access to a Glock, and nor are they always the best option for self-defense for a very simple reason: firearms require preemptive action, surmising a person’s intent before they act, in other words, anticipating the action of an attacker which makes the legal case of self-defense more blurry. What if the guy is just crazy, does he really want to attack me, I don’t know if he has a deadly weapon? these are the kinds of questions that make so many police shootings controversial, but what if we had something that was only lethal once an attacker has committed his actions? This technology is designed so that the attacker first has to confront the victim, for example, try to rob or mug him, and then physically try to overpower him, by allowing himself to enter into a physical altercation, he is proving intent to harm, this allows a legal precedent for lethal self-defense to be incontrovertible as opposed to preemptive fire with conventional handguns of an approaching potential attacker. Clearly, under an ideal scenario, we should be able to use preemptive self-defense, but governments fear this as it would be destabilizing and “discriminating”. Aside from civilian self-defense which was the impetus for its invention, the technology would also have prospective customers from state actors, such as police, SWAT, special forces, or special assassination teams working for intelligence agencies who must carry out targeted and covert assassinations. Since the weapon system generates no noise whatsoever, it can be used where firearms are not suitable, for example, civilians cross-fire risks. The weapon also requires no metallic components if the battery is metal-free (oxides only, leaving no magnetic trace), so it can be potentially designed to evade metal detectors, allowing its use in special operations. The electrodes can be constructed out of high conductivity carbon materials as opposed to conventional metal conductors such as aluminum, steel or copper. There is a concern the technology would be attractive to bank robbers and other assorted criminals, but aren’t firearms too? Every weapon that has a good side to it, that is guaranteeing the safety of decent people, can also be used for sinister purposes, Pochari Technologies assumes no responsibility for sinister end-use scenarios. I anticipate, once commercialized and all the minor manufacturing details sorted out, which could take decades, that governments would try to ban it like anything they consider threatening to their tyranny. But the nice thing about this technology is that it is extremely easy to obfuscate, there are no tell-tale signs, such as gun powder, lead, brass, and of course metal firearm parts, which are more easily recognized and traceable.

Hydrostatic light-weight truss technology

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A Hydrostatic truss uses pneumatic tubes in place of a conventional compression-loaded member.
Pochari Technologies is spearheading the pneumatic structure revolution. Although totally unknown to the public, it is possible to design structures that are far less material-intensive using internal pressure to carry loads. This elegant principle of loading a column in compression while not carrying the load in the walls through internal pressurization is extremely powerful and possesses a myriad of diverse applications. While inflatable structures have an impressive track record of providing extremely lightweight and rapidly deployable structures, they have yet to be used to achieve a high degree of rigidity. What is needed is a paradigm change in the nature of inflatable structure technology, this paradigm change is moving away from monolithic or monocoque style canvases that are only filled with air forming at best a big balloon. What is called for is a highly rigid member, as rigid as a steel column, but whose weight is a mere fraction.
Pochari Technologies is improving upon this technology by using pressurized cylinders to achieve the dynamic and structural properties of “pseudo” rigid members which can be used for both towers (*see page 1 on the drop-down menu), and to build trusses for horizontal load-bearing applications such as bridges or beams.
The impetus behind the design is the need to exploit the highly appealing material properties of many composite fibers (kevlar/aramid/glass fibers/vectran) which despite possessing poor compressive strength, boast immense tensile strength. If these fibers are loaded in hoop stress only, columns can be designed that bear load through transferring force onto the end pistons only. These rigid columns can then be assembled into a truss-like structure.
The weight of this truss technology compared to classic steel or even aluminum is greatly reduced, paving the way for all sorts of novel applications.

U.S ammonia prices stabilize to $1500 per ton

Natural gas prices have stabilized to just over $4/MBTU since August 2021, sending anhydrous ammonia prices to over $1400. As of the 13th of January, anhydrous prices in the U.S have reached $1486/ton, up from $1434 from December. With this price, autogenous ammonia production using advanced high temperature microporous insulated reactors feeding from photovoltaic facilities could yield payback times of less than two years. The innovative capacity of human civilization will be tested in this new environment of artificially elevated nitrogen fertilizer prices.

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LONG-RANGE LIQUID HYDROGEN TURBOPROP CARGO UAVs

Powerplant: Horizon PEMFC 50% ef 5 kw/kg, 3 hp/lb

Gross weight: 10,500

Empty weight @55%: 5,775

Drag: 800 lbs

Power: 520 hp

Hydrogen consumption: 23.3 kg/hr

Propeller diameter: 8.75 ft

Number of propellers: 2

Power loading: 5.5 hp/ft2

Power-thrust ratio: 5.15 @sealevel, 1.54 @FL280

Cruise speed: 320 MPH

Range: 4700 miles

Endurance: 14.68 hours

LH2 tankage drag thrust penalty: 20 kg LH2

LH2 fuel weight: 342 kg

Tankage @35%: 119 kg

Fuel weight at 2000 miles: 154 kg

Volume: 170 cubic feet

Block fuel weight: 1017

Payload: 4725 lbs

Net Payload 4700 mi: 3700

Net payload 2000 mi: 4285

Equivalent jet fuel weight with PT6-A67B: 5390 lbs

Cargo cost for 7000 miles: $0.85/kg @ $2/kg LH2

Conventional air freight pre-Covid average Hong Kong North America: $3.5/kg

Cost advantage: 4x

UAV manufacturing cost: $1,500,000

Airframe life based on 757: 100,000 hours

Hourly airframe cost: $15

Galton reaction time paradox solved.

Christophe Pochari, Pochari Technologies, Bodega Bay, CA

Abstract: The paradox of slowing reaction time has not been fully resolved. Since Galton collected 17,000 samples of simple auditory and visual reaction time from 1887 to 1893, achieving an average of a 185 milliseconds, modern researchers have been unable to achieve such fast results, leading some intelligence researchers to erroneously argue that slowing has been mediated by selective mechanisms favoring lower g in modern populations.

Introduction: In this study, we have developed a high fidelity measurement system for ascertaining human reaction time with the principle aim of eliminating the preponderance of measurement latency. In order to accomplish this, we designed a high-speed photographic apparatus where a camera records the stimuli along with the participant’s finger movement. The camera is an industrial machine vision camera designed to stringent commercial standards (Contrastec Mars 640-815UM $310 Alibaba.com), the camera feeds into a USB 3.0 connection to a windows 10 PC using Halcon machine vision software, the camera records at a high frame rate of 815 frames per second, or 1.2 milliseconds per frame, the camera uses a commercial-grade Python 300 sensor. The high-speed camera begins recording, then the stimuli source is activated, the camera continues filming after the participant has depressed a mechanical lever. The footage is then analyzed using a framerate analyzer software such as Virtualdub 1.10, by carefully analyzing each frame, the point of stimuli appearance is set as point zero, where the elapsed time of reaction commences. When the LED monitor begins refreshing the screen to display the stimuli color, which is green in this case, the framerate analyzer tool is used to identity the point where the screen has refreshed at approximately 50 to 70% through, this point is set as the beginning of the measurement as we estimate the human eye can detect the presence of the green stimuli prior to being fully displayed. Once the frame analyzer ascertains the point of stimuli arrival, the next process is enumerating the point where finger displacement is conspicuously discernable, that is when the liver begins to show evidence of motion from its point in stasis prior to displacement.
Using this innovative technique, we achieved a true reaction time to visual stimuli of 152 milliseconds, 33 milliseconds faster than Francis Galton’s pendulum chronograph. We collected a total of 300 samples to arrive at a long-term average. Using the same test participant, we compared a standard PC measurement system using Inquisit 6, we achieved results of 240 and 230 milliseconds depending on whether a laptop keyboard or desktop keyboard is used. This difference of 10 ms is likely due to the longer key stroke distance on the desktop keyboard. We also used the famous online test humanbenchmark.com and achieved an average of 235 ms. Using the two tests, an internet and local software version, the total latency appears to be up to 83 ms, nearly 40% of the gross figure. These findings strongly suggest that modern methods of testing human reaction time impose a large latency penalty which skews results upwards, hence the fact it appears reaction times are slowing. We conclude that rather than physiological changes, slowing simple RT is imputable to poor measurement fidelity intrinsic to computer/digital measurement techniques.
In compendium, it cannot be stated with any degree of confidence that modern Western populations have experienced slowing reaction time since Galton’s original experiments. This means attempts to extrapolate losses in general cognitive ability from putative slowing reaction times is seriously flawed and based on confounding variables. The reaction time paradox is not a paradox but rather based on conflating latency with slowing, a rather elementary problem that continued to perplex experts in the field of mental chronometry. We urge mental chronometry researchers to abandon measurement procedures fraught with latency such as PC-based systems and use high-speed machine vision cameras as a superior substitute.

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Anhydrous ammonia reaches nearly $900/ton in October

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Record natural gas prices have sent ammonia skyrocketing to nearly $900 per ton for the North American market. Natural gas has reached $5.6/1000cf, driving ammonia to 2014 prices. Pochari distributed photovoltaic production technology will now become ever more competitive featuring even shorter payback periods.