Self-erecting pressurized media column for high altitude ultra light-weight structures

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Basic working principle: A hydrostatic tower, hydraulic column, pneumatic column, or pressure-filled tubular load-bearing member, defined hereinafter as a pressurized media column (PMC), works by imparting molecular energy from a compressed gas or liquid onto a piston and using that energy to bear loads through the use of a friction free piston free-floating above the pressurized media in a sealed container. Since the walls of the sealed container are rigid that is they are a cylindrical shape, the pressurized gas takes the path of least resistance and travels upwards to the free floating piston. The force of the free-floating piston can then be used to carry unlimited loads without transferring them to the containment pressure tube. In a pressurized media column (PMC), as the piston is subject to upward force, it rises immediately tensioning the cables in the process until the structure becomes utterly rigid, unable to flex whatsoever. The tube bears none of this linear force, as it is subject only to hoop stress, therefore the tube can be as slender as possible minimizing its weight to the absolute minimum. Once fully pressurized, the cylinder is unable to move down unless a force greater than the force acting upon it is produced. In other words, the structure derives its load-bearing capacity by using a portion of the upward force produced that would otherwise have to be carried by the restraining cables by placing vertically loads on the piston. If a load that comes very close to the hydrostatic force is placed on the piston, the piston is able to reciprocate by slowly compressing the medium below, but by definition, a force cannot move the piston unless its sum is greater than the pressure acting on it. hydraulic fluid In the case of a wind turbine, the piston carries the dead weight of the nacelle and blades plus the lateral forces resulting from static pressure acting on the turbine blades and nacelle in addition to the lateral loads acting on the tube from wind friction. Using highly intuitive Newtonian mechanics, it can be readily illustrated that the structure’s load-bearing capacity is thus equal to the area times the pressure using the formula: pressure equals force divided by area P = F/A. There is sometimes confusion about the nature of force produced by compressible gases, since pneumatic structures are viewed as “spongy” and infinitely flexible, some have difficulty understanding how a pneumatic structure can possibly possess rigidity. The answer is that to compress a gas, a given amount of energy or force is needed, the force is proportional to the pressure, thus as the intermolecular distance of the gas molecules decreases, magnetic repulsion increases and proportionally more energy is required to displace them. So while it is true that pneumatic structures are “
spongy”, this is only the case at very low pressures where the structure’s loads can often momentarily exceed the outward force from the gas. it is correct to state that gases are theoretically almost infinitely compressible, and if enough force is available, they can be continuously squeezed until the gases would eventually turn to solid meta. The pressurized media column structures works by ensuring that the structure’s payload is less than the force needed to compress the gas. A load cannot move a compressible medium if the compressible media contains within it energy that exceeds the force applied, no matter how compressible the medium is. Gas is highly compressible, yet one cannot stop a pneumatic cylinder with their hand nor an internal combustion deriving its torque from expanding hot nitrogen gas. It is important to realize that all heat engines are “pneumatic” in principle insofar that they really on the force of gases under pressure to produce work. A pressurized media column is thus a stationary pneumatic engine, rather than extracting work by creating motion, it extracts a static or idle force to counter a lesser static load. In the pressurized media column, the pressure bearing component is constructed from a cylindrical pipe that spans the height of the structure, which can approach 300 meters. The pressure-bearing tube, while not subject to the gravimetric load of the nacelle, is nonetheless still subject to the static force of the wind which causes it to bend, this bending motion is prevented from occurring with the guy wires, but in the pressurized media column (PMC), unlike a classic guyed tower the guy wires ultimately transfer this lateral wind load onto the piston which is prevented from displacing down by the fluid pressure acting on it, thereby allowing the lateral guy wires to prevent any deflection of the pressure column. The upward force of the piston allows the column to be tensioned thereby reducing the compressive loads it must withstand to zero. In a classic guyed tower, the tower section wants to bend from the force of the wind and while the guy cables may prevent this, this lateral force is simply transferred or converted directly into compressive loading, a classic guy tower thus fails in both compression and buckling, since by definition any force withstood successfully by the guy cables is always transferred to downward force on the tower since the guy cable can only pivot and but cannot stretch. As the tower wants to bend, the cables must pivot since they cannot stretch, as a result, the only way for lateral movement to occur is by shortening the tower, that is for the tower to sag. This places very strong compressive loads on the lattice structure of the conventional guyed tower. In the pressurized media tower, this is completely obviated by running a series of cables vertically from the piston down to the intermediate tube stabilizing guy cables which are placed every 15 meters. As the tube wants to bend from the wind, the lateral guy prevents it by attempting to compress the tube, but rather than this compressive load being transferred to the tube, it is transferred to the piston by the vertical cables. Therefore, the tube itself is simply standing there virtually “idle”, indifferent to the prevailing loading regime, needing only to perform its job as a pressure container, with the entirety of the exogenous structural loads carried by the piston which is then carried by the force of the desirous to expand fluid. It can be said that a pressurized media tower’s raison d’etre is its unique and elegant ability to entirely bypass classical Euler buckling, flexural buckling or compressive failure no matter how tall, slender and thin the column is. The essential point to understand is that the pressurized media column works by exploiting the properties of the plastic column material by transferring a directional compressive load into uniform hoop stress or internal pressure distributed even along the interior surface of the cylindrical tubular containment structure, which remains loaded only in tension the entire time, regardless of the force acting on the piston. The pressurized media columns thus converts compressive load into tension, which is a unique feat. As long as the piston generates zero friction between itself and the cylinder around it, it is physically impossible to transfer any compressive load to the column. Since all plastic materials (including metals) do not experience pre-yield deformation in tension, a hydrostatic structure is able to increase the structural efficiency of the load-bearing members by an enormous factor. The technology is discussed in much greater detail below including how a friction-free piston is designed.

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Small reference model of a pressurized media column

The basic schematic below of the pressurized media column. Note the load-bearing piston, which carries all the load of the payload placed atop the tower, plus any wind force on the tube, cables, or payload. Since pressure is a uniform force, pressure cannot cause a directional movement of the member unless there is an equal surface area distribution. In other words, pressure acts to move bodies only if they are not submersed in the media, otherwise the force of the pressure on the other side of the surface cancels it, it then becomes an “atmosphere”. The hydrostatic tower thus uses the weight of the dead-load to cancel the upward force of the pressure below a certain margin.

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A pressurized media tower with a wind turbine installed on top of it. Lateral loads emanating from the wind acting on the turbine can be transferred into compressive and tension loads born by the piston and vertical cables spanning to the bottom of the tower. The four outwardly extending pressure columns serve to apply tension to the vertical-lateral cable connection, allowing the cables to be tensioned. As wind force acts on the wind turbine, the bending moment of the turbine is carried entirely by the tower without flexing. Think of this technology as a gigantic hydraulic jack, we are lifting a huge car by holding up a narrow jack cylinder up into the air, the hydraulic fluid does all the heavy lifting, we don’t need to carry the weight of the car on the cylinder walls of the hydraulic jack, as long as the cylinder walls can maintain the pressure of the hydraulic fluid under the load of the car, the structures can maintain stability. The pressurized media column can carry a wide array of loads atop of it, including antennas, radars, direct air carbon capture devices, meteorological devices, and more. Wind turbines are the most attractive application, since wind speeds accelerate sharply with altitude.

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A technical schematic of the basic pressurized media tower components.

Method to improve the load capacity of high altitude guyed towers using hydrostatic force to eliminate buckling

Christophe Pochari, Pochari Technologies, Bodega Bay California.

Before we go into more detail on the design, workings, and engineering factors that go into the pressurized media column, it is necessary to provide an overview of the motivation behind the technology’s development. Since pressurized media columns have a single point of failure, their use makes the most sense for cost-sensitive applications where the safety of humans is not dependent on the structure’s reliability. Even though hydraulic and pneumatic sealing mechanisms) discussed extensively further down), can be made extremely reliable, and while they could find immense use for civilian structures and building construction, it is anticipated their prime application will be in wind energy and carbon capture, therefore a relatively extensive discussion of the salient facts pertaining to the energy landscape is performed.

Introduction: Energy is by far the most valuable asset after human capital for a nation. The entirety of modern industrial civilization is predicated on the continued flow of high caloric value inputs, without which no modern technological society could sustain itself for more than mere months. Unfortunately, the planet contains only small quantities of highly concentrated energy, most of the energy available on earth is in a diffuse form, highly dispersed across its surface as downstream solar energy. The caloric value from the heat of decaying radioisotopes and residual mantle heat is extremely weak at depths available to present drilling technology. The highly concentrated energy is principally in the form of gaseous and solid carbon-hydrogen compounds, with oils forming only a small percent. Of all the calorie-emitting compounds in the crust, 100% of it is in the form of carbon and hydrogen, there are no other heat-emitting molecules that we have access to for energy. Carbon is found in the upper crust at a concentration of roughly 0.02%, only 2.38 times higher than the concentration of nickel, an expensive metal, and 4.75 times less abundant than manganese, a moderately expensive industrial metal. Carbon is also rarer than strontium and barium, hardly elements abundant enough to burn ad libitum. Worst yet for man’s energy predicament, most of the carbon in the crust is in the form of carbonate rock, limestone, and dolomite, highly oxidized states with no caloric value to speak of. It’s estimated that of all the organic carbon on earth, only 0.01% is in the form of hydrocarbons within the sedimentary rocks. While the theoretical quantity of hydrocarbon is massive and represents thousands of years of present consumption, twenty trillion as some have estimated, the tiny fraction is amenable to extraction renders this initially impressive number far to a far more meager one. Man consumes around 4.5 billion tons of oil annually, 3.8 trillion cubic meters (2.6 billion tons) of methane, and 8.6 billion tons of coal, for a total of nearly 16 billion tons of hydrocarbon annually, or 1000 years of present consumption if we take the estimate of two times ten to the thirteen tons of hydrocarbon as a baseline. Most of the crustal carbon is in an oxidized state-bound up with oxygen, offering no energetic value. A small fraction of this 0.02% carbon concentration is in the form of energetic highly reduced molecules, the valuable hydrocarbons that man profusely mines for. Prosini estimates the total reserves of hydrocarbon to be nineteen quadrillion, but of course, these estimates are silly and for intellectual curiosity only, since if all the hydrocarbons were to be combusted, there would be no oxygen left for life on earth and carbon dioxide levels would reach unliveable proportions. If we assume ten percent is practically extractable, there are only 100 years left. Clearly, mankind must get busy developing depletion-free energy technologies. While the estimated reserves of methane hydrates in the arctic seabed are immense, numbering the thousands of years, no present extraction scheme has been proposed. While it might seem at the present moment as if there is ample hydrocarbon available, one must not forget that hydrocarbons are by no means inexpensive anymore, and regardless of what your personal opinions on climate change are, the so-called “energy transition” is not misguided at all. Critics of alternative energy often adduce the cost advantage of methane or coal over photovoltaic or wind generators, but the reality is quite a bit more complex and case-specific. 

If we take the current spot price of methane, which in the U.S is worth $6.5/1000 cubic feet, the notion that natural gas is a “cheap” source of power is actually incorrect. There are 35.4 cubic feet in a cubic meter, and the density of methane is 0.71 kg/m3, so there is approximately 20 kg in 1000 cubic feet, yielding a price per kg of $0.32. The caloric value of natural gas is 44.1 megajoules per kg, or 12.21 kWh. The average efficiency of a dual-fuel diesel engine with pilot fuel injection is 40%, and a medium-sized gas turbine is 35%. Using the gas turbine, we can produce power for 7.5 cents per kWh, which might seem like a low number for consumers, but is hardly cheap compared to hydropower or nuclear fission. Using coal, the energetic cost-effectiveness is only marginally superior to methane. Newcastle coal futures have historically traded at $150/ton, historically speaking refers to the past decade. In recent months, coal futures have jumped to over $400/ton due to a convergence of circumstances, but principally growing electricity demand. Unfortunately with coal, highly efficient Brayton and Diesel cycles cannot be exploited, leaving marginally efficient Rankine cycles as the only option. Most steam turbines are under 30% efficient unless in the supercritical class, where CAPEX becomes an increasingly dominant factor. Additionally, the cost of the steam turbine and boiler pr kW is far higher than a gas turbine due to its much lower power density, hence a greater material intensity. Steam turbines’s high-pressure blades must be constructed from nickel alloys, and while the amount of nickel per kW is insignificant steam turbines would use more scarce metals per kW than a wind turbine. Carbon comprises 90% of typical anthracite coal by mass, carbon possesses a heat of formation of 32 MJ/kg or 8.86 kWh per kg. At $150/ton, the Levelized generation cost is therefore 5.6 cents excluding boiler, turbine, and condenser CAPEX. Since coal is not always 90% carbon, a more conservative estimate of 20 MJ/kg is used, most coals possess between 20 and 25 MJ/kg, or just under 7 kWh (7.5 cents at $150 per ton with a 30% efficient turbine). When these systems are factored in, an additional cent and a half can be added. Steam turbine price estimates can be sourced from online marketplaces like Alibaba, which are usually very accurate estimates of real-world wholesale market prices without the “fluff factor” of inflated retail Western prices. Dongturbo Electric Ltd retails a 1000 kW condensing steam turbine for $250,000-300,000. These medium-sized condensing turbines consume 15 kg of steam per kWh. The inlet pressure is 2.1 MPa and the inlet temperature is 300 C. The CAPEX of the attendant coal boiler is approximately $50,000. Since we are comparing to a wind turbine, we can exclude the cost of the synchronous generator, since a steam would require a synchronous generator as well. The cost per kW for the 1000 kW coal powerplant so far is around $300. A steam turbine can expect last over 250,000 hours, but a realistic amortization is 150,000 hours before a major overhaul is needed. Using this number, a negligible additional 0.2 cents is added per kWh, highlighting the disproportionate fuel share of LCOE.

The conclusion of this brief analysis of the state-of-the-art thermal hydrocarbon powerplants suggests a lower limit of 5 to 8 cents per kWh is achievable, but with a very low chance of achieving costs below that. Coal is unlikely to fall below $150 per ton in the foreseeable future as electricity demand from countries like India which are under pressure to provide growing power for urban air conditioning, therefore, wind-generated electricity will become more competitive in cost, since the price of steel is the #1 cost contributor of a wind turbine, and steel is unlikely to significantly increase in price in the foreseeable future.

In conclusion, until someone successfully overturns the 1st or 2nd law of thermodynamics, man is forced to scavenge tirelessly with his various contraptions to harvest the biosphere for every vestige of calorie-emitting material. As civilization advances and spreads, the demand for caloric value increases strongly, and if this caloric value cannot be met, a lower standard of living has to be accepted. Daniel Sheehan in San Diego has claimed the ability to generate heat from thermal equilibrium, but since the paper was written in 2019, there is no evidence of a 3rd party prototype conclusively demonstrating useful work from the equilibrium. Since Sheehan’s discovery has the chance, albiet small, to utterly transform civilization as we know it, effectively destroying the entire thermal energy as well as non-thermal energy sector, ushering in a period of unprecedented geopolitical turmoil as a consequence lost oil and gas revenue in the middle east, even if we conclude the odds of his discovery being genuinely a 2nd law violation are low, it would be remiss to ignore it.

Sheehan’s Maxwellian Zombie, fact or fiction?

Note: this short article is unrelated to wind turbine tower technology, we only mention it for intellectual and amusement purposes, skip over if you are uninterested. Enlightened men believe the last invention man would make is how to harvest energy from the thermal equilibrium, namely the energy from our surroundings. Whether it is through the supposed zero-point vacuum radiation through the Casimir effect, or through manipulating the flow of heat and entropy in a way that obviates the 2nd law.
In the late 1990s Daniel Sheehan proposed a new kind of Maxwellian demon, but rather than a demon, it would be called a zombie. It would be not an intelligent creature, but a lumbering brute. Rather than processing inordinate amounts of information on the trajectory of surrounding molecules, it would perform a more banal task of exploiting a niche within a closed system without having to harvest information, by using brute force, it would prevent molecules from ever colliding with each other, forcing a disequilibrium to manifest. This is critical and the only why a temperature differential can be achieved to begin with, without maintaining a sufficient gap between molecules, collisions will occur rapidly leading to equilibrium. This necessitates a vacuum to maintain for the system to function. Sheehan’s proposal in hindsight is genius, and perhaps we should feel stupid for not thinking about it. Maybe we can reassure ourselves that it’s the fault of the thermodynamic establishment for forbidding us from transgressing the sacred principles that work can never be yielded from a single heat body.
Sheehan’s zombie makes use of a metallic catalyst, comprised of refractory metals, metals that have extremely high melting points, namely tungsten and rhenium. The apparatus works in a strong vacuum within a closed chamber, hydrogen gas is introduced into the vacuum and heated to 1500 K. It has been known since the early 1900s that hydrogen, a diatomic molecule, will dissociate at elevated temperatures, around 1900 K and recombine upon a lowering of the temperature or in the presence of a catalyst which induces recombination.
The key for this zombie to work is fine-tuning the dissimilar catalysts to achieve a strong enough differential of absorption and desorption of atomic and diatomic hydrogen on their surfaces. Rhenium is four times more efficacious at disassociating diatomic hydrogen (which absorbs energy) than tungsten, so it will potentiate the reaction and cool relative to the tungsten which performs the recombination (which releases energy).
If a heat engine or thermoelectric generator is placed in the reactor, will that drawing of heat halt the reaction? If heat is drawn from the reactor that is initially heated and then runs in steady-state operation with thermal insulation, there is enough initial energy trapped in the insulated reactor to maintain the activation energy for splitting the diatomic hydrogen. At 300 K, it takes 400 kJ to break the hydrogen bond, so presumably, in a thermally hermetic chamber, this heat can be preserved almost indefinitely. Like a flywheel that is spun to high speed in a vacuum, it appears as if it’s a perpetual motion machine when in fact it is simply not losing any speed to friction, the initial energetic input will manifest forever until it is drained out to produce work. That would be the main concern with Sheehan’s epicatalytic diode. In the age of power-hungry data centers, it is hard to believe Jeff Bezos would not be knocking loudly on his door, unless of course, Jeff Bezos is not academic enough to spend his time thinking about how to get around the 2nd law. It looks like Kelvin, Clausius and Planck stand firm, and as long as we are, we are in business, and man will be contriving ever bigger and more elaborate contraptions to squeeze every molecule of heat and kinetic energy from this earth. If Sheehan is correct, then we are going to retire and surf for the rest of time since there will be nothing left to do, at least for us in the energy business, energy will be free, and the utopia will have arrived. Until then, let us continue discussing wind turbines and the energy predicament.

The 21st century can be characterized as a perfect storm between runaway hydrocarbon demand and concomitant downstream reverberations from their combustion beginning to be being widely felt. Not only due their combustion emit nitrogen-oxygen compounds, which react with volatile organic compounds, isoprenes, terpenes, and form ozone (trioxide). Even worse, the carbon dioxide molecule absorbs infrared in the 4 and 20-nanometer range, and may cause an additional radiative forcing or equivalent insolation of 1.5 watts per square meter. This increase in equivalent insolation has been highly controversial, but it is reasonable to expect it to increase evaporation intensity, which may disrupt macroclimatic stability. Sea level is a potential concern, while there is not a grave reason to fear sea level at the present moment, but there is a more than acceptable chance it may accelerate in the near future due to so-called “threshold effects”. Sea level rise has remained remarkably steady during the post industrial revolution era, but this is not what should be predicted if the greenhouse gas theory is correct, since GHG emissions have increased rapidly in the past half-century, and even more rapidly with the recent industrialization of China. Regardless, whether or not GHS emissions are as catastrophic as predicted by certain climate models, it is worth hedging the future viability of civilized life through the use of hydrocarbon-free power.

In light of these needlessly stated conditions, modern civilization demands a host of new options as substitutes for the energy of yore.

In order to provide this depletion and externality-free energy source, we have identified a method to make available one of the most abundant natural sources of energy, dilute solar energy in the form of pressure gradients: wind.

Unfortunately, wind velocities rapidly decay as the wind comes into contact with the earth’s surface, leaving only relatively slow wind speeds at the heights commonly associated with extant wind turbines. Another rather sobering factor has been the vitiating in wind velocity due to global greening (a corollary to rising CO2 concentrations), the increased surface roughness caused by a growth in shrubs and trees has caused wind speeds to decay closer to the surface, but not at higher into the atmosphere.

A few points we believe are important to highlight: 

#1: The impetus for developing hydrocarbon substitutes should be motivated by a combination of resource and atmospheric/climatic concerns, but it should remain balanced and level-headed. The fact is hydrocarbons are naturally becoming scarcer and costlier, and with enough time, will be depleted. But it would also be remiss to ignore the negative externalities imposed by their combustion, through a combination of weak greenhouse gases, such as carbon dioxide, and stronger greenhouse gases, nitrous oxide, and methane, the continued combustion of hydrocarbons may be regrettable and compromise the stability of the macro-climate. The doubling of carbon dioxide in theory will raise global temperature by around one and a half degrees, but there is still debate as to the exact sensitivity of the CO2 molecule since, unlike methane which has a wide absorption band, CO2 only absorbs infrared in the 4 and 20-nanometer range, it is opaque to the rest of the frequency band. 

Energy development should not necessarily be driven entirely by policy alone, which may not perform the necessary selection for performance and financial viability, development rather should be based on a combination of market forces and societal concerns that should compel the adoption of more competitive technologies. Wind energy, or any alternative energy technology, must succeed on its own, without subsidies, promotion, or favorable treatment. The technology should succeed and proliferate based on its intrinsic attributes, and these attributes should in part suggest an innate superiority, whether in cost-effectiveness or longevity, or environmental cleanliness over contemporary hydrocarbon technologies. If these attributes are not met, there is no rationale for their deployment, regardless of their social attractiveness on non “hard” metrics. In other words, we should not develop technologies that are less effective than hydrocarbons, unless they possess other attributes that compensate for their relative deficit. We are making the argument high-altitude terrestrial wind is a superior form of primary energy generation even compared to thermal technologies. The arrow of technology has pointed in a single direction in the history of civilized man, and this direction is towards ever exalted forms, more potent forms, and more intensive and expansive forms. Technology rarely regressed backward, and such a condition would be greatly lamentable. 

#2: The term “renewable energy” should be dispensed and replaced with the term “natural energy harvesting”, since no technology is renewable according to the strict definition of the word. While it is true that the steel and copper used in a wind generator can in theory be recycled indefinitely, there are still nevertheless geo-metallurgical and processing limitations that cap the scalability of all human technologies and place an upper limit on recyclability

#3: We must be willing to diverge from the design dogma in the present industry, such as the emphasis on the use of glass fiber over metallic blades, or the use of multi-megawatt scale as opposed to high densities of sub-megawatt turbines. 

#4: We must stop futilely trying to force wind energy or any spasmodic source to be merged into the power grid. Present-day electrical girds are designed for a variable but predetermined controllable flow of current. Current is modulated only above the so-called “base-load” using variable output thermal engines throttled according to temporal demand conditions. AC grids require a constant frequency of 50 or 60 cycles per second depending on the country, a wind turbine will produce without a rectifier a variable frequency alternating waveform without the use of doubly fed induction drives. When the turbine yields more current than can be consumed by the grid, energy is shunted and lost forever. Since it is unlikely we can meet these stringent exigencies imposed by the AC grid, we should look for other options. Rather than force grid integration, these spasmodic wind sources should be deployed where a certain degree of variability can be more easily tolerated. For example, spasmodics can be used to cut present hydrocarbon consumption by producing hydrocarbon-intensive chemicals, such as hydrogen for ammonia, methanol production, hydrocracking, caustic soda, aluminum, electroplating, titanium production, and steel recycling using electric arcs, and many other electricity-intensive or hydrogen intensive processes. What distinguishes these processes is their ability to absorb variable power, while grids struggle to absorb isochronous current without massive storage banks and or stability issues. Every joule of energy saved by avoiding hydrocarbon consumption in these sectors is more energy available elsewhere, or a reduction in emissions. A key competitive advantage afforded by any spasmodic power source is its ability to produce storable, energetic compounds that are conducive to transportation and storage and on-demand reversibility into calorific value. 

Backgeound and motivation:

Wind harvesting technology has remained almost entirely unchanged since the days of the German Growian, American MOD series, Danish Nibe A, and Italian Gamma 60, among others. Harvesting power from the wind is not a “boondoggle” by any means if engineered properly, if geography is appreciated, if grid connection and frequency modulation is circumvented, and structural efficiency is optimized. At an altitude of 10+ meters per second, more acreage is available onshore only than the world’s total energy consumption by many-fold.

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Map from the excellent “Global Wind Atlas” by DTU, judging from this map it is clear there is absolutely no need to bother building turbines in the corrosive ocean with all the attendant foundation, electrical cabling, and installation challenges. We would like to thank all the people that constructed this map for their effort! It is our opinion that offshore wind is completely ridiculous in light of high-altitude terrestrial technology, since after all, the whole idea of offshore wind is to tap into high-velocity regime, but since we can get those same speeds on land by simply go up a few extra meters, one has to seriously wonder anyone would even attempt to subject themselves to the ferocity of mother nature’s oceans when you can take to the safety of land. In fact, there is more land available for turbine installation than there is of suitable shallow waters, the total area of waters where the depth is less than 100 meters, which is the practical limit for foundation installation, is relatively small. Additionally, fishing vessels risk colliding into the turbines at night during storms. A guyed wind turbine takes up virtually no precious farmland unlike conventional wind turbines which have a large diameter tower, some as wide as 5 meters, since the tower base is much narrow and the silo is placed entirely underground. The guy cables that exit the earth at a 55-degree angle do not impede operation at a farm since their spacing is very far apart allowing harvesting vehicles to pass freely through. High altitude terrestrial self-erecting turbine technology makes expensive offshore installation redundant and obsolete.

The oil crisis of the 1970s prompted the advanced nations of the world to embark on a path of alternative energy development, probing into the technical feasibility of large-scale wind installations, concentrated solar, and photovoltaic. This was amidst a growing disillusionment toward nuclear fission, a combination of growing environmental fears and cost-overruns served to kill most of the Panglossian predictions made during the 1950s. This concerted effort to identify a viable alternative to hydrocarbon has only recently been surpassed in recent years over fears of greenhouse gases, rather than resource depletion. 

In 1974, the DOE commissioned the “Project Independence” report which studied a multitude of different wind turbine configurations, including a two-bladed turbine with a mast as high as a thousand feet. In 1975, NASA contracted out blade manufacturing to Lockheed and installed the in Sandusky Ohio. In 1978 Boeing was contracted to scale up the Mod-O with the Mod-1 and Mod-2. In 1976 Germany under the Federal Ministry of Education and Research tasked MAN SE with building a megawatt-scale wind generator called the Growian 1 and 2. In Denmark, extensive research and development was taking place with the ELSAM Nibe series of turbines in Denmark, and in Italy, 

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The above image highlights the blade-restraint system. A series of cables made of Aramid fiber spans at a sixty-degree angle from the frontal shaft restraining the blades from bending under frontal wind loads. The six cables extend and retract to maintain a constant tension on the blades. A small pulley powered by electric motor in the frontal nacelle/pod mounted can provide live modulation of length and tension depending on wind loads and desired angle of attack. Since the blades are angled forward, they remain compressively loaded with a small amount of tension between the two cable attachment points. This structural configuration minimizes blade root stress by placing the blades as a doubly supported beam rather than a cantilevered beam, the reduction in stress concentration is as much as 80%.

While the overall architecture has remained remarkably consistent, a few distinctions do appear. What made the 1970s generation of wind turbines stand out was their use of metallic blades in place of glass fiber. Glass fiber technology had not yet reached the level of maturity that it did in the 1990s, and despite the heavier metallic blades, their performance and longevity would be superior to today’s fiberglass. Steel blades can be designed to be thinner, afforded by their higher tensile strength, a more aerodynamically optimally geometry can be achieved. For example, 4140 steel can be cycled ten billion times if the stress amplitude does not exceed 500 MPa. If aluminum is used, such as 7075 T6, the cycle life is can exceed 100 million amplitude cycles if the stress is kept below 150 MPa. A solution to reduce the stress on the blades is by using guy cables that extend from a shaft from the rotor hub and allow guy cables to load the blade in longitudinal compression as opposed to bending. By bracing the cable, a dramatic reduction in stress (where the stress is most concentrated) can be realized. The turbine blade is very strong in longitudinal compression, if braced with two cables, the von Mises stress is reduced by threefold from over 300 MPa to just under 100 MPa. The bending moment of the blade is reduced from 1000 millimeters to barely 50 millimeters between the end and middle cable. Bracing the blades with a frontal rotating strut is an elegant way to considerably lighten the blade with minimal aerodynamic penalty, mainly a small decrease in the wind pressure from the turbulence of the small-diameter bracing cables. When the turbine blade must pivot its angle of attack, the cables are allowed to elongate and retract from the attachment point on the extending shaft permitting the blades to twist.

There’s a common misconception that extant wind turbine blades are “optimized” beyond reasonable limits with the use of CFD, and that no major changes to improve their lift coefficient are possible. In reality, this could not be further from the truth. The Danish Nibe A, with its thinner metal blades, achieved a significantly higher power density, around 450 w/m2 at 12 meters per second, while most modern fiberglass bladed turbines with their whale-shaped bulbous blades barely achieve 300 w/m2. The Enercon E-44 is one exception, but upon examination, one can easily tell the blades resemble the older metal designs, with a slimmer geometry that looks quite different from the standard extant design. A slender blade achieves a higher lift-to-drag ratio which improves the power coefficient, translating to higher power densities. The Enercon E-44 achieves a power density of 460 w/m2 at 12 m/s at a power coefficient of 0.39. With guyed metallic blades, a higher power coefficient can be stemming from the ability to reduce the chord thickness of the blade.

Power curves for the Nibe A (below), Enercon E-44 and Enercon E-70. The power densities at 12 meters per second are 0.434, 0.46 kW/m2, and 0.48 kW/m2, respectively.

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The Nibe A and E-44 are substantially more efficient than the mean wind turbine in use today, this is attributable to an optimally slender blade geometry. The Enercon E-70 currently boasts the absolute highest power density of any wind turbine existence thanks to its unparalleled CP of 0.45 at 12 meters per second, the E-44 has a CP of 0.44 at 12 m/s. The unique airfoil shape, which is readily observable with its highly cambered geometry, accounts for its high CP. The reason other manufacturers do not appropriate the airfoil design is unkown, since Enercon Gmbh does not maintain any patents in the Google patent archive or the European patent Espacenet search engine. 

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Power curve of two E-44s installed in Iceland, showing up to 20% overproduction.

The Enercon E-44’s overproduction and the power law.
Ragnarsson et all performed a study on two Enercon E-44s installed near the Búrfell volcano in Iceland and found a dramatic overproduction compared to the power curve predicated by Enercon. They concluded that either Enercon underestimated the true power output to be conservative or that the particular site which featured an 8.7 m/s mean wind speed and a standard deviation of 5 m/s featured substantial storm speeds in the 25-34 m/s range which could account for the higher power output. The authors concluded that it was likely that both factors accounted for the substantial overproduction, which of course is excellent for the wind turbine owner. Either way, the turbine produced about 17% more power at 12 m/s than the rated curve predicts, yielding a power density of 0.545 kW/m2, or on average producing over 850 kW at 12 meters per second. Since the Icelandic site is located in a class 3 Ice zone, one can assume at least a 5% power loss to icing, making its real power density perhaps as high as 0.57 kW/m2.
Now turning to the power law of vertical wind shear profile, we can use the wind shear exponent based on surface roughness to estimate the speed at higher altitudes. One thing is to be noted, either the DTU wind map overestimates the vertical wind profile, or the power law underestimates it, because if one uses the power law with an exponent of 0.15 (typical for short prairie grass) the increase in wind speed from 50 meters to 200 meters is substantially less than the DTU estimate, which has likely been verified experimentally with SODAR data.
In the 1970s, the U.S DOE’s “Project Independence” investigated designing a 300-meter tall tower to capture high-speed winds in Wyoming, they estimated a 1.093x wind speed increase from 182 meters to 300 meters. The Dutch offshore wind atlas measured a 1.075x increase from 200 to 300 meters over the Dutch countryside, which is mainly pasture with low tree density, but a higher density of buildings than the Argentinian prairie or the Nebraska sandhills. Assuming a wind speed exponent of 0.15, between 0.14 and 0.16 is realistic, then if we increase the height from 200 meters where we know the wind is 11.5 meters per second from the DTU map, we can then get a speed of 11.7 m/s at 300 meters. But this number is likely underestimating the true speed, because if we use and compare it to the global wind atlas, to match the speed increment from 50 to 200 on the atlas, an exponent of 0.225 is needed, which suggests the mathematical formula is ill-equipped to calculate the true wind speed at elevated heights unless the DTU wind atlas is completely inaccurate. For example, in one selected coordinate Magallanes, Santa Cruz Province, Argentina, the mean wind speed at 50 meters is 9.24 m/s but increases to 12.55 m/s at 200 meters, but the power law predicts only 11.38, a full 1.17 meters per second less than wind atlas.
What is the real number?
The real is likely close to the DOE estimate, after all, they would be very careful to validate the exponent they used since they were making financial estimates based on the wind velocities, especially considering this was during the 1970s when the U.S government was much technically competent than it is today. Without renting a SODAR at the site, it is impossible to say with 100% accuracy, the question can we achieve a reasonably close approximation and the answer is yes.

The single biggest limitation in wind turbine technology after the heavy tower is the need for a speed-increasing gearbox. The rotational speed of the shaft from hub is only about 15 RPM for a 750 kW turbine. The weight and cost of a 15 RPM dynamo would be exceedingly prohibitive. The mass of a 1500-1800 RPM synchronous generator is already nearly 3 tons, while if the speed is increased to 20,000 RPM, the mass declines to barely 150 kg, very close to a linear decrease. The average copper winding intensity of a 90 kW induction motor at 1500 RPM is approximately 0.47 kg/kW, no data is available for synchronous generators, but the numbers are expected to be close. This winding intensity translates into a direct cost of $4500/MW at present spot prices, or approximately 40% of the cost of the typical 1 MW synchronous generator. In contrast, by adding only two additional epicyclic gears, we can increase the RPM from 1500 to 20,000 with only a few tens of kg of steel, which is one 9th the cost of copper. This is a very intelligent design trade-off, namely using slightly more of a cheaper material to reduce the amount of expensive material. For a 20,000 RPM synchronous generator, the amount of copper needed is barely 100 kg, or $800. Hydrostatus systems is actively considering a generator-less configuration where small diameter low torque drive shafts are inserted on the exterior of the column to drive a generator on the ground. Such a configuration would eliminate one of the only major hazards faced by wind turbines: electrical fires: Perhaps surprisingly, fires are one of the leading causes of wind turbine failure, by removing electrical components, it is difficult to generate the necessary sparks to ignite flammable material. Hydrostatus systems is also investigating the use of non-flammable ionic liquids for gearbox lubrication. Many ionic liquids have viscosities as high as standard motor oil (50 centipoise) and possess superior tribological properties.

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A 1 megawatt 1500 RPM synchronous generator juxtaposed with a 20,000 RPM version. The amount of copper saved easily pays for the added gearbox stages. It should be noted that once the initial high torque reduction is performed, gearboxes last much longer at the higher speed section since torque is dramatically reduced even though friction and heat is somewhat higher.

Some may object to the added gearbox challenges associated with operating at elevated speeds, namely increased friction, heat, and subsequent lubrication degradation. But such concerns are trivial compared to the cost savings that can be had from the smaller electrical machine. 

Without such speed intensifying gearbox, heavy low-speed generators that need permanent magnets, usually made from neodymium, must be employed, at a significant cost and weight penalty. These slow-speed permanent magnet alternators make additional use of praseodymium to increase the flux density at low speeds, and are usually ten or more times more expensive than high-speed synchronous generators or induction generators. Beyond a mere cost disadvantage, the weight of the generators even after adjusting for the weight of the gearbox makes it an unattractive option as it adds nacelle volume which contributes to greater drag that has to be borne by the tower structure, be it conventional or hydrostatic. Despite the high cost of permanent magnet dynamos, Neodymium, and especially praseodymium, contrary to popular belief, most of the lanthanides are not “rare” at all. Neodymium reserves do not actually limit the scalability of wind power unlike platinum group metals limit the scalability of fuel cells. 

Technology is ultimately subordinate to the elemental and the material substrate it can be constructed from, and their techno-geological attributes. In the realm of structural engineering, man enjoys a privileged vantage point, since there exists only one non-ferrous alloy with a tensile strength of close to 1000 MPa, that is beryllium copper. Excluding titanium, virtually all of the high-strength metals available are ferrous. 

Man has not been kindly enough bequeathed with the more exotic of the elements, the most abundant elements he has access to are rather bland elements, that may shine in structural applications, but have limited magnetic or electrically properties. Iron is the most abundant metal after aluminum, and while solute strengthening, precipitation hardened, and plastic deformation can be performed to produce the strongest metal known to man, it has rather unextraordinary electron orbital shapes. For any technology to be viable, its material constituent has to be scaleable with the demand for said technology. A technology that cannot scale for reasons of elemental scarcity, is a useless technology no matter how impressive it may look. PEM fuel cells, and lithium-ion nickel-cobalt manganese batteries both cannot scale to worldwide levels of deployment, even though many technologies that use exceedingly scarce elements, for example, catalytic converters, have scaled, but that is thankful because they use minute quantities. A Low-speed permanent magnet generator uses an average of 650 kg of magnet per MW, and of that, 22% is neodymium and 0.76% praseodymium by mass, although some estimates suggest as much as 4 to 6% praseodymium is used. For medium-speed permanent magnet motors, the magnet loading is 160 kg, for high speed, it drops to 80 kg. Since the whole point of using a permanent magnet is to dispense with the gearbox entirely, we will choose the 650 kg/MW for our scalability analysis. The benchmark for all our scalability studies is the U.S or European power, which are both around 3-4 billion megawatt-hours a year. We would need 450,000 kW of installed capacity to power these big grids or close to 90,000 tons of neodymium and 3,000 tons of praseodymium. The estimated reserves of neodymium are massive, estimated to be 20 million tonnes, and praseodymium is estimated to be 2 million strong, so the scarcity of neodymium nor praseodymium is a concern, but rather their added cost, weight, and volume occupied compared to a high-speed unit. An electrical machine’s power density is a linear function of its rotational velocity, so the worst possible thing we could do is operate the generator at low speed. A speed modulation system is far more elegant than squandering materials and manpower into constructing inordinately heavy low speed machines.

Elemental composition of NdFeB magnets.

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Since our turbine operates for simplicity at 100% “capacity factor”, our annual power output is its hourly output times 8760 hours minus 3-5% maintenance downtime. 

Gearbox design: the Achilles heel of wind turbine technology.

While direct drive turbines suffer from marked electrical machine limitations, gearboxes are not exactly perfect either. Wind turbine gearboxes have historically suffered from more than ideal failure frequency, caused mainly by cyclical torque loads. Unlike a gearbox used in industrial machinery operating at constant, a wind turbine gearbox is subjected to isochronous loads, which cause a sudden introduction of load. The term “hydrostatic” when invoked with reference to wind turbine technology has almost always insinuated the use of some form of gearbox system for power transmission, namely to up the RPM to suitable generation speeds. Hydraulic fluid is incredibly convenient for designing an infinite-speed variator, but the losses have served to thwart this technology application. The use of ionic liquids, combined with short path flow circuits and low leakage seals, may open up the possibility of infinite speed hydrostatic speed of variators, finally ridding the annoying gearbox from the wind turbine. While conventional hydraulic drivetrains as aforementioned suffer from an efficiency penalty relative to gearboxes, ionic liquids with their almost zero compressibility offer the drivetrain designer the ability to contrive a close to lossless pure hydrostatic speed variotor. Ionic liquids boast a bulk modulus (a measure of incompressibility) of almost 3.6 gigapascals at 400 bar, while traditional hydraulic oils are around 2.2 and only increase to. This difference may appear insignificant, but for a hydraulic system, it makes a substantial difference in the net efficiency. The less energy is absorbed compressing the fluid, the more leftover for performing useful work. A major cause of energetic losses in a hydraulic circuit is viscous drag and pressure as the fluid is pumped at high flow rates in a long hosing circuit. Fluid loses, momentum, as it incurres viscous drag along the hosing wall and pump and motor surface area, since any given volume of hydraulic media contains only so much energy, the amount of viscous induced momentum loss, is significant. An ideal hydrostatic power transmission circuit would minimize viscous losses to the greatest extent possible, this would be achievable by minimizing circuit distance. 

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It would make little sense to design a transformative and innovative tower technology without making at least some minor improvements to the main turbine module. A wind turbine, ours for that matter, that uses a high-speed generator, makes use of very minimal scarce elements, with a small amount of manganese in the 4140 steel as about the only use of a quasi scarce element. Manganese itself is not considered scarce by current consumption reserve ratios.

Archimedes’ lever in reverse.

It is possible through intelligent engineering to minimize the force acting on the gear teeth to keep the material well within the fatigue limit of common gear steels such as 42CrMo and 18CrNiMo7-6. Since the tangential force of rotating object is proportional to the distance from the axis of rotation, a larger diameter sun gear experiences a reduced load at the contact points. The use of an epicyclic or planetary drive allows the designer to share loads on multiple planet gears where each planet experiences its own local contact point at its local rotation, thereby distributing the torque onto multiple faces decreasing the pressure. Once the initial bulk of speed reduction is provided for, the torque drops dramatically and the gears can be designed to be much lighter. For the 800 kW turbine in question, the tip speed ratio is around 6.5 yielding an RPM of 15 producing 400,000 ft-lbs of torque. With a gear radius of 500mm, the outer tangential force drops to 243,000 lbs, distributed along with five planet gears, each planet gear faces only 49,000 lbs at once, keeping the von Mises stress below 15 MPa. Hydrostatus Systems has designed a novel gear configuration whereby the toothed surfaces on the sun gear are broken up into sections to aid maintenance and repairability without compromising in any way the smoothness of the gear operation. If a gear tooth fails through abrasion or stress cracking, the technician can merely unbolt a section of the gear in place without removing the entire gear wheel. This method also saves manufacturing costs as a smaller CNC machine or wire EDM machine can be used as the workpiece size is minimized. Note that the sectionalized gear is only necessary for the initial low-speed reducers, once the RPM is high enough, the gears need only be very small in diameter facilitating easy replacement.

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A 5:1 replaceable section reduction gear. Approximate weight: 1170 kg. The gear pictured above takes the highest torque produced initially by the turbine and increases to 75 RPM, dropping the torque from 375,000 ft-lbs to 75,000 ft-lbs. The sun gear tooth face can be divided up into 6 or more sections, each connected to the main wheel via a spline. The gear sections are held on place by a plate fastened on the gear wheel. Modern gearbox technology is incredibly efficient. For example, the main speed-reducing main rotor gearbox on the Bell OH-58 Helicopter maintains a mechanical efficiency of 98.4% at maximum torque, dropping to 95% at fraction of its peak torque. Since higher altitude wind features less variability, a higher gearbox efficiency is achieved.

Magnetic and hydrostatic bearings, game-changers or just a distraction?

Wind turbines are subject to very large axial and radial loads, for example, a 50-meter wind turbine may have blades weighing 7 tons and a hub weighing 0.8 tons. The radial loads not only emanate from the dead weight of the rotating equipment, but also the wind force acting on the blades laterally. An additional ten more tons may be generated by strong gusts acting on the side of the blades. Therefore, a wind turbine bearing must have very strong lateral load capacity as well as gravitate vertical load capacity. Since the parasitic power loss is proportional to the bearing friction, and friction is proportional to the force applied, a heavy shaft spinning even at low speeds incurred a small power loss, which of course would need to be larger than the power required by the hydrostatic or magnetic bearings. This is where the crux of the matter is, all alternative bearing technologies actually have greater parasitic losses, compensating for their superior longevity. An axial ball bearing with a typical friction coefficient of 0.005 will incur a power loss of 320 watts, or 500 Newtons for an 800mm diameter shaft spinning at 20 RPM, or approximately 0.00053% of the output power. 

Magnetic bearings rely on the repulsive and attractive force of an electromagnet to produce the levitating force necessary. The achievable zero-gap forces are between 50,000 and over 70,000 kg/m2 for electromagnets, but at a gap distance of 1 millimeter, this would decrease by about 17%. At 2.5 millimeters of gap, the force declines 30%, field magnetic intensity declines as the inverse cube of the distance.

The power requires by an electromagnet varies from 3 milliwatts per kg to 10 milliwatts per kg, depending on the flux intensity, more current running through less winding generates more heat and eddy current losses. The average power consumption is around 10 milliwatts per kg for a magnetic pressure of 60,000 kg/m3. For a conservative estimate, we will use 12 mW/kg, thus for a 10 radial load-bearing, we will consume 1 kW, or three times more than a friction roller bearing. At first glance, this would seem like the ideal magnet design, but upon further examination, there are some notable issues that have served to keep this technology from reaching mainstream use. A central issue has been the relative bulkiness and cost of the copper winding, the second has been precise balancing of the shaft inside the electromagnet coil array. Precise gap sensors operating high frequencies feeding into a digital controller are necessary for stable operation, this has served to dissuade designers from incorporating magnetic bearing in all but the highest speed applications. The other issue is lack of redundancy, all magnetic bearing systems require an auxiliary friction bearing that must be capable of relieving its load when the magnetic bearing is turned on. The amount of volume needed is substantial since the relative magnetic pressure is very low compared to hydrostatic bearings or conventional friction bearings. 

In contrast, a hydrostatic bearing operating at 100 bar would generate a pressure of 700,000 kg/m2, allowing a much more compact bearing. Using pressure drop as our flow rate determinant, we can calculate the pumping power of the bearing. For an oil film thickness of 50 microns, which is typical for a hydrostatic bearing, if the diameter is 800mm with a length 350mm, assuming a steel surface, a flow rate of 20 liters per minute generates a pressure drop of 100 bar. The pumping power is thus 6000 watts, or sixteen times more than a friction bearing. If reducing friction ends up increasing the power lost in the system, one has to ask whether this is a sound engineering decision.

In conclusion, there is little reason to believe bearing technology is receptive to significant improvement effort, leaving other systems as prospective candidates for process intensification and betterment.

What is needed rather than sundry marginal micro-innovations, whether in speeding modulation, bearing technology, or even blade aerodynamics, is precisely the antonym of a micro-innovation: a macro-innovation. A departure from the world of incrementalism and minor tweaking is needed, a radical leap onto a higher plane of technology is called for. A Kuhnian paradigm shift and revolution in the way structures are constructed, away from Euler columns towards hydrostatic columns, is wind energy’s new calling. This paradigm change in the way we support wind turbines, an “aerial platform”, allows the designer to place the state-of-the-art windmill in the fiercest wind regimes in existence, all while staying in the safety of the solid ground, culminates in a unique technological optimum. 

The following text is meant to be a brief exposition on this new type of technology, one that can greatly potentiate the power of wind energy. We have named the technology “Self-erecting and tensioning hydrostatic levitation tower technology for wind turbines and cell towers”. 

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A cable-stayed bridge in China. Cable-stayed bridges are among the few terrestrial structures that make extensive use of cabling to derive their structural integrity and distribute loads.

Hydrostatus Systems invented this technology in February 2022, after many months of studying how to improve wind energy by increasing turbine operating altitude. A fascinatingly novel structure, that defies the norms of structural engineering, arose out of this effort. The technology is so novel that an entirely new vocabulary must be developed, entirely new concepts have to be normalized and contemporary literature must be updated accordingly. This new type of hydrostatic structure is ready to be exploited with zero research and development required, using contemporary materials procurable from commercial supplies, and using the current knowledge of gas sealing, compression, ferrous metal threading, and cold-drawn metal wire rope manufacturing. The technology’s compatibility with extant material and know-how mean that it boasts a technological readiness level at stage 8.

In consequence of the vast power of hydrostatic force merged with structural engineering, a tower can be designed to reach heights of over 1000 feet or 300 meters permitting wind developers to tap into inexhaustible amounts of high-velocity wind energy previously squandered out of a lack of suitable options. The use of the term “self-tensioning” highlights the structure’s ability to generate autogenous rigidity from the upward force of the desirous to expand hydrostatic media (liquid or gas), as well as to stabilize itself through the tensioning of guy cables. A third feature is the structure’s ability to elevate itself using a sequential tube-extension mechanism, what we have termed “autogenous erection”, which obviates the need for costly and bulky cranes for erection and their attendant transportation. This feature alone saves several tens of thousands of dollars on each turbine erection, further minimizing the LCOE. 

The basic concept of using pressure to generate rigidity is itself not new, inflatable domes make use of it, but offer only rudimentary spherical structures with limited use. Despite no commercial application and the high degree of novelty surrounding this hydrostatic structural technology, it would be fair to say virtually every conceivable humanly possible idea has been patented in some variation or another, even if not exactly homologous, it’s hard to find not a remote conceptual cousin in the patent literature, who for unknown reasons, floundered commercially. It would be hard to believe no one had imagined using the force of hydrostatic or pneumatic fluid to carry heavy loads in structural applications, low and behold a tiny number of people have, but the literature remains completely obscure nonetheless and this patent literature has not spilled over into textbook literature. The first person to seriously investigate and publish a technical article on the possibilities of pneumatically supported yet rigidly structures was Jens G Pohl at the California Polytechnic Institue in San Louis Obispo. It should be noted that the concept of a “pneumatic structure” is nothing new, but when the term is used, most people think of air domes, hardly a stiff and strong structure. Our inquiry into pneumatic or fluid-filled structures is strictly with the aim of achieving unparalleled stiffness. In 1967, Jens Pohl published an paper titled “A Preliminary Investigation into the Load-Bearing Capacity of Open-Ended Cylindrical Columns Subjected to Internal Pressure” at the Proceedings for the International Colloquium on Pneumatic Structures in Stuttgart, West Germany. Jens Pohl maintains an active website and authored a book on pneumatic structures, but makes little to no mention of the rigid pressurized column, but instead focuses on his concept for a pneumatic high-rise building using flexible membranes for pressure containment.

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The Pneumatic structures Colloquium in Stuttgart is no longer held, pneumatic structures have found no widespread use due to their inability to be configured into a geometry that achieves high stiffness. Pohl’s 1967 paper on pressurized columns is not available to read, but judging from the title, it appears as if his intention was almost entirely homologous with ours, but it seems he has moved on to more flexible designs in recent times. Despite Pohl being the first, he is not the one that can be credited with the idea for designing a truly rigid and hydrostatic structure, that title belongs to Milton Meckler. Meckler is still active as a consultant, but has made little inroad in developing his ideas in hydrostatic building technology, not due to the merit of the technology, but entirely imputable to incorrigible industry dogmatism. Meckler is 89 years old, a new generation of hydrostatic structure designers is needed, Hydrostatus Systems (formerly Pochari Technologies) is aiming to be a key player. In November 1970, Milton Meckler patented a design for using hydraulic fluid inside tubular members for mid-rise building construction, he went on to two other variations of the initial design. The concept was to use circumferential tension or “hoop stress” to absorb the otherwise compression and bending loads in ordinarily loaded structural members. Using compression to carry tensile loads is by no means a novel or unproven concept, worldwide, cable-stayed bridges experience superlative performance by transferring their loads to compression in concrete or steel columns. These bridges perform excellently in high winds, cable drag surprisingly proves to be of little liability.

Meckler, as in our designs, does employ a free-floating piston at the ends of the hollow tubes, each of these pistons is then connected to an intermediate member which connects the tubular-truss configured members as highlighted in the image below. In 1981, Meckler published a book titled “Energy Conservation in Buildings and Industrial Plants” where his concept for fluid-filled tubular members was introduced, but the idea was never cited in successive literature.

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Meckler’s hydraulic building system.

After Meckler, the closest anyone has come to developing a true hydrostatic structure is computer graphics developer Melvin Prueitt, who conceived of an inflatable flexible fiber composite multi-story structure over a decade ago. In 2009, Melvin L. Prueitt patented an inflatable structure drawing its rigidity from compressed air using low compressive strength fibers. Prueitt called his invention a “Compressed-Air Rigid Building Block”. Prueitt’s design employs pneumatics, and uses Vectran fiber “pockets” stacked to form a rigid tower. Prueitt, like Meckler, has found no takers, again evidence of a chronic poverty of imagination in the building and structure community.

Prueitt’s pneumatic tower using Vectran “blocks”.

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Prueitt comes arrived at the concept of using lateral guys, using pressure as a source of rigidity, and loading is material in tension only, but unlike the following patent, failed to make the connection with free-floating reciprocation of a piston.

As can be seen from this quite diverse prior art, Hydrostatus System is not alone in our inquiry into a new class of structure, but we are alone in seeing their newfound potential, and we are responsible for the final design refinement which we will mention later. In 1984, Jack G Bitterly patented a hoop-stress-loaded hydraulic column to bear vertical loads. Bitterly’s design comes very close to ours, and is effectively our design except the only difference is that in ours the guy cables are oriented laterally.

Bitterly’s hydraulic “Euler buckling free” slender column patent drawings.

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The following is from Bitterly’s patent description: “The pressure tube is mounted such that it can move axially with respect to the cable or the outer tube. When the tube is pressurized, some of the force is absorbed in hoop stress in the tube, and some of the force is directed to the ends of the pressure tube and to the cable or the outer member either through a piston arrangement or otherwise. When compressive loads are placed on the system, it can support force up to the preload without exhibiting Euler buckling. The system is useful for long, thin columns and for long beams where rigidity is important. The pressure tube is not subject to compressive loading because its ends are free to move axially without compressing the tube. The pressure tube may be wrapped in high tensile strength unidirectional fiber material to withstand higher hoop stress”.

By no chronological order, below is a list of homologous hydraulic or pneumatic structures that individuals have patented throughout the years. It is interesting to note that this is what we see in the patent archive, it is reasonable to expect there are private documents within corporations or government bodies that have not been published that allude to similar concepts.

In 1951, Archibald Milne Hamilton patented a design for a pneumatically supported tower structure, which according to the patent description, would use air at 80-100 PSI to generate rigidity, but he does not employ the use of a free-floating piston, so he cannot perform the feat of self-tensioning. Below is the patent drawing for Hamilton’s pneumatically rigidified structure.

In 2001, William E Drake patented a pneumatic column structure titled “Column structures and methods for supporting compressive loads”. In the patent, he describes the use of a hoop-stress-loaded composite fiber column filled with gaseous mediums to be used in supporting compressive loads. But unlike Bitterly, he does not use a free-floating piston.

In 2008, Michael Regan patented a pneumatic column entitled: “Fluid pressurized structural components”. The design is a constant volume containment unit.

In 1993, Raul A. I. Schoo patented a design for a hydraulic load-bearing column titled: “Tubular column of high resistance to buckling” with intended use with hydraulic or pneumatic media.

In 2010, Elberto Berdut Teruel patented another design for a hydrostatic column member titled: “Compressed fluid building structures”, the design seems to be very similar to Drake’s patent. Despite Teruel’s patent being accepted by the U.S patent office, Teruel promotes quacky free-energy gimmicks on his website, which is often the downside of creativity.

In 2010, Charles R. Welch et al patented a hydrostatic structure they named “Hydrostatically Enabled Structure Element (HESE)”, this design also appears virtually identical.

In 2004, Roland B. Heath patented yet another hydraulic column titled: “Load-bearing pressurized liquid column”. This patent appears virtually indistinguishable from the above designs. Below are sundry images from the above patents. As can be evidently seen, they seem to follow a pattern: they are rudimentary cylinders that use hydraulic fluid to carry loading in a column-like regime, but none went to the next logical step which is to generate autogenous tension in the guy cables.

Below are sundry images of the above-mentioned patents in no particular order. The following patents can be studied in the further detail in the source section at the bottom of this page.

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This final design refinement, the “final touch” that takes hydrostatic structures from infancy to applications is what makes our design unique. Prueitt and sundry patents do not make use of freely reciprocating pistons, nor do they make use of guy cables fastened in a lateral orientation, what they do have in common, and hence their citation in this exposition, is that they all use the pressure of some form of hydrostatic media, in a fixed or variable volume containment structure to generate their rigidity and bypass Euler buckling via hoop-loading, of which they otherwise possess very little, if not none as in the case of Prueitt’s compressed air rigid building block which uses Velcran fibers. An important distinction to make and in fact the main distinguishing feature that allows us to separate and categorize these respective hydraulic and pneumatic structures is the difference between a fixed and variable volume system. The two main architectures of a hydrostatic structure regardless of its material composition, geometric orientation, or hydrostatic media. A fixed volume hydrostatic structure will of course pressurize its surrounding walls, and it will generate tension in its longitudinal direction, but because it is of a relatively fixed volume, it cannot perform the act of external self-tensioning. What all of these patents excluding Bitterly’s have in common is their use of a fixed volume column. A variable volume hydrostatic structure is where the free-floating piston is free to move longitudinally to the extent that the restraining guy cables permit it to. This affords the potential to generate longitudinal tension externally and subsequential permits the bearing of lateral loading such as wind shear loads. It is only Bitterly’s design, which is most homologous to ours, that performs the stroke of genius to employ the free-floating piston which generates a variable volume chamber. Bitterly cleverly uses a high tensile cable fastened inside the tube submerged within the fluid to retain the pistons at both ends of the tube.

Despite this extensive but overlooked patent literature, hydrostatic structures remain an anomaly and arouse strange looks among people. The relatively extensive patent literature serve as a corroboration to those who are skeptical of the technology’s feasibility, since after all, each patent is examined by a qualified examiner, so almost everything in the patent literature must be somewhat technically feasible to be approved as a useful invention. Interestingly though, according to U.S patent law, a technology does not actually have to be compatible with the present “laws of physics” to be approved, hence there can be found patents pertaining to electrogravitics or other yet-to-be-demonstrated phenomena. Of course, this alone cannot be used to evaluate any technology, since there are invariably a significant number of patents that make it through despite having dubious technological feasibility. A technology can be only evaluated by a methodological and holistic analysis of its working principles and methods to attain such working principles. In light of this rich “prior art”, it is surprising there has been no effort to harness the immense force and rigidity generation of hydrostatics for structural applications. Despite the huge upside, there is not one terrestrial structure that uses this brilliantly novel concept of bearing a load using the internal pressure of a cylindrical pressure vessel as opposed to transferring it into the wall of the structure.

Structurally, there is no difference between a guyed tower and a cable-stayed bridge, the only difference is that guy tower is elastic, it is vertically compressible, and hence laterally flexible, while a cable stayed bridge is much less elastic since the deadweight of the deck serves to tension the cables. Despite the weight of the deck maintaining a relative degree of rigidity, the deck is not entirely stiff, in fact, it is free to flap in the wind if the load is sufficiently high, although since the Tacoma bridge, most designers have maintained a minimum degree of deck deadweight to prevent aeroelastic flutter. The Tacoma bridge did not collapse due to resonance, the wind load was constant and not cyclical, the failure of the Tacoma bridge was simply caused by the low weight of the deck which was effectively turned into an airfoil by the wind.

A cable of fixed length cannot pivot laterally unless it follows its height-dependent angle. As a cable pivots, it follows a circular path that revolves around its fixed pivot point at the start of the cable, to move just a few degrees, it must move downward a significant distance, unless this can be facilitated by a height reduction in the column, a structure can be laterally as rigid as the force acting upward. This lack of any force pushing the tower up allows it to bend in the wind, whereas a hydrostatic structure is constantly being “pulled” or pushed up, as if a gigantic crane were suspending the whole thing from the air. This is the key concept to understand and why one can never compare a hydrostatic rigid tower with a classic guyed tower.

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The nature of structural loads

Structural loads can be broken down into two basic categories, uniform or hydrostatic loads, and directional or heterogeneous loads. The force acting on a slender column is both compressive and torsional, that is deformative, in that it subjects a plastic material to deformation. For a slender column, the failure mode is the famous “Euler buckling”. This buckling dynamic will occur above a certain slenderness ratio, usually around 30. Column buckling occurs far before ultimate tensile strength is reached. The basic working principle of the pressurized media tower is equal to a hydraulic or pneumatic cylinder commonly used in heavy equipment, presses, or mechanical actuation. 

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There is no free lunch in structural engineering, you may escape classic Euler buckling by increasing the diameter of the column, but then you will simply move the failure mode to another kind, namely flexural buckling and crumpling. Slender or thin-walled columns have very limited compressive load capacities, and hence high altitude towers are effectively impossible without the use of inordinately heavy thick-walled steel towers.

But before elucidating the working principle, it would be useful to highlight the difference between a pressurized or “energetic substance” and a placid but highly firm material. Ultimately, the force from a compressed gas or liquid derives from intermolecular repulsion, which is electromagnetic in origin. The force that causes air molecules to repel each other is the same force that causes metal atoms to solidify tightly together, resisting deformation and generating a hard substance we can use for structural purposes. The difference is the energy levels of the metal is at equilibrium, there has been so external application of force, while for our liquid or gaseous medium, the energy levels are excited, in an unnatural state. In the case of a metal or solid, say stone, the atoms may solidify strongly, but they do not contain any releasable energy that desires to take the path of least resistance, they are stable systems in harmony with their surroundings. A gas in a compressed state is highly unnatural, just like a highly reduced metal, that wants to go back to its oxide state. Therefore, a dam carrying meters of water or a pressure vessel in a CNG car, are both systems that desire to release energy in a sudden burst, while metal experiences no such urge, yet both states have the potential to generate the same result: a rigid state. The reason a comparison is of value is that both aggregate states have the potential to generate rigidity or a firm surface, so we can now do something intuitively strange, compare an elastic, buoyant, compressible, and otherwise formless gas to a hard, solid material like metal. The difference is simply that to generate a firm condition with a compressed otherwise very elastic and buoyant substance we must put energy into them, but never allow the energy to be released, the energy is effectively levitating or hovering but never being allowed to flow to its natural diffused state. In this case, we are but a “receptacle’ for the energy of the contained pressure media, always exploiting its force, but never depleting it. It should be also noted that no structure, no matter how rigid the material may appear, be it steel or concrete, does not generate an equal opposite forcing countering the force acting upon it. A hydrostatic structured always produces a force greater than its rated load, meaning that deflection is actually impossible, just as it would be impossible for a man to pull a semi trucking driving down the road with a rope as it’s accelerating. Every load that does not exceed the hydrostatic force is countered by the structure’s momentum, a steel or concrete structure has no impulse or dynamic tendency, in fact a steel beam can be deflected ever so slightly even if the load is insignificant since the material by nature is elastic and nothing acting to counter the force other than the material’s modulus of elasticity. Since the pressure in the vessel is constant, it is not possible for the piston to be pushed down by the load and compress the gas inside, for this to occur a force greater than the hydrostatic force is necessary which would not occur during the structure’s lifetime. If this overloading were to occur, the pressure column would slightly expand laterally according to the newly increased pressure and accommodate the added pressure, but the piston would still to deflect downward since the added pressure would be merely absorbed by the tube, but it would not cancel the previous pressure or reduce it unless the tube reached its yield strength. Ultimately, this gambit of generating “free rigidity” from pressurized gas still of course has to be born by a rigid material, be in metal or a fiber composite loaded in tension, there is no free lunch, we need material to bear the pressure, the crux of the matter is the nature of the loading regime, it just so happens that geometry makes an immense in how the same material reacts to a load, and so one can interpret this technology as a geometric loophole that we are free to exploit: plastic materials perform much better in tension when they are free from non-uniform deformation, merely stretching in unison. Even if we still have to bear the force of the energized gas, but it is how we load this material that matters.

Returning to the working principle, it is necessary to highlight the nature of the load distribution and how this accounts for the structure’s core competitive advantage. This crucial point is the nature of the “loading regime” and its effect on a material’s behavior. Plastic materials are naturally just that: plastic, they are easily deformed and this is what gives them their tremendous ductility. But this deform-prone characteristic also generates a unique vulnerability: buckling. Buckling occurs when the material modulus of elasticity is reached, not necessarily its tensile strength let alone its yield strength is reached. A metal rope is readily flexed, folded, and bent without ever reachings its yield strength, the point where it permanently deforms. The rope’s ability to bend easily is due not to any mysterious property differences compared to a steel beam, but to its relative geometric configuration, which allows the loading regime to exploit its elasticity. 

A circumferential tension-loaded pressure vessel is immersed in a hydrostatic media, usually mineral oil, and a piston equipped with seals is forced to travel with a force equal to the pressures times the area. The power of hydraulics comes from the potential to achieve immense pressures, with many hydraulic cylinders operating at 400 bar and some even operating at 700 bar. This enables an otherwise minuscule pipe to carry weights orders of magnitude above its intrinsic standalone weight. The power of hydrostatic force is readily illustrated by estimating the force acting on a 800mm diameter piston at 45 bar. The total force at the piston is 219,000 kg or 219 metric tons (482,000 lbs), a mass just under the gross weight of a large mining haul truck such as a Caterpillar 785! The hoop stress on a 800mm tube is only 100 MPa with a 5mm wall diameter, which is readily handled by aluminum or even magnesium. While steel can be used, we prefer the ease of matching and light weight of the aluminum pressure column, and since the column suspends in the air from the piston, its mass must be carried by the compressed air, so minimizing its weight frees up more load capacity to bear wind loads and carry the weight of the turbine. Using aluminum 7075 T6 with a yield strength of 500 MPa, a safety factor of 5 times can be achieved.

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An 800mm diameter 5-millimeter thick aluminum 7075 T6 pressure column. Maximum stress is only 100 MPa at 4.5 Mpa of internal pressure, giving a safety factor based on yield strength of five times. The mass of the column is only 60 kg/m. The maximum deflection of the pressure column with the internal spars spanning 25 meters between guy cables is only 2.2 millimeters at 67 m/s (150 mph) wind gusts.

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The tubes would under ideal circumstances be machined with a boring bit from solid hot rolled bar much like cannons have been manufactured for centuries. The ideal alloy for the pressure column is 4140 steel with a Rockwell hardness C of less than 29 for machinability with a maximum tensile strength of 880 MPa. The fabrication method used plays a critical role in the performance of the part. The strength achieved by cold rolling sheets and welding them at the seems is far inferior compared to machining or forging, but forging is . Seamless pipe forming is also an option, although the strength will still be inferior to milling with low residual stress.

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Main pressure column with internal stiffeners and a UHMWPE bulletproof liner. Each column section is set at a length of 10 meters which provides for convenient assembly in the silo. To minimize fatigue stress on the aluminum pipes, rubber pads are inserted between the threaded connectors at the 10-meter connection interval allowing the individual members to flex during extremely high winds. At a drag coefficient of 0.35, each tube experiences 14,600 Newtons of drag, which is well within the materials load-capacity, generating a stress of only 10 MPa. The use of a ballistic liner, manufactured from thin high molecular weight polyethylene sheets is chosen for areas where security is poor and the risk of vandalism is high. One of the only weaknesses of our ultra-high power density high altitude wind turbine is the ability for a committed saboteur to destroy the tower by firing high-powered rifle rounds into the pressure-bearing columns. But thankfully, a number of engineering options exist to counterpoise these concerns. At fifteen meters, only 18mm worth of UHMWPE can stop a 7.62×51 NATO. UHMWPE powder can be bought in bulk for $2.5-3.5/kg, the cost of a 300-meter long 18mm thick liner is only $30-40,000 which is a minimal additional cost. In areas that are low risk, such as in Europe, the risk of sabotage via firearm is extremely remote making the use of a ballistic liner redundant. Operators of a large wind farm using these towers would be wise to hire a security firm to patrol the peripheries of the property to ensure no saboteurs sneak on onto the property. Drones and security cameras can be used to preemptively detect trespassers. It should be emphasized that our tower is not uniquely pregnable to sabotage, it should be noted that existing wind turbines can be severely damaged by firing high-powered rifle rounds at the blades or nacelle possibly causing a fire in the generator, or transformer and electrical box on the ground, destroying the unit within minutes since firefighters would take at least half an hour or more to arrive. Thankfully, vandalism against wind turbines has been rare.

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It should be noted that the presurized media tower differs greatly from conventional guy towers not merely in load capacity, but in critical structural dynamics. Because the upward force acting on the piston always exceeds the loads placed on it, the piston is unable to deflect down a few millimeters, rendering the structure completely rigid vertically.  With the tension-loaded members then transfer vertical rigidity into lateral rigidity. This contrasts starkly with the classic guyed mast, which is a highly elastic and hence a uniquly resonance-prone structure. Because the wind loads can cause the mast to bend hence changing its height, the structure can sway back and forth until the elastic limit of the lattice is reached. An attractive option is to employ a small diameter but high-pressure PMC column and wrap this column with Dyneema fiber, and then place this narrow pressure inside a larger thin wall column for lateral stiffness. Such a design is illustrated below.

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The main pressure vessel is tapered for structural optimization, stress concentrations are the highest from the end mounting points, and taper off from the center where axial loads increase. Each section of the pressure vessel need only be 2 meters long making it easier to fabricate and perform lathe cutting.

The diameter of the stiffness column is 1 meter and the diameter of the inner-pressure vessel is 321mm generating 264 tons and incurring 605 MPa with a mass of 83 kg per meter. High HRC 4140 can achieve a yield strength of over 1200 MPa, a safety factor of more than 2 is a waste of material since the tube will never experience an overpressurization. The weight of the total column is 143 kg/m. This design makes the unit effectively impossible to sabotage other than cutting the guy cables, but a simple electric fence or electrically charged guy cables sheathing around the first 10 meters can strongly dissuade would-be saboteurs.

The classic guy structure is henceforth somewhat susceptible to resonance-induced structural failure caused by the runaway amplification of loads that occurs if the natural frequency of the structure is in phase with a dynamic intertial loading regime, such as cyclical wind loads or cable oscillation. In reality, this seems not to happen, but in theory, it could if the wind loads were to agitate the cables at the same frequency as the lattice mast’s natural frequency. Resonance-induced structural failure occurs only when a cyclical load happens to correspond exactly with the structure’s natural frequency, for highly rigid or stiff structures, the natural frequency is very high, whereas the cables even highly tension have a natural frequency of far below 1 Hz, around 0.11 Hz for the main lateral guy cables. Cables on cable-stayed bridges experience what is called “vortex shedding” where vortices existing on the rear of a relatively blunt surface periodically alternate their direction of propagation, generating a force perpendicular to the wind direction. Vortex shedding can cause cables to vibrate at certain Reynolds numbers, usually when the wind speeds are relatively high. For rigid columns such as cable-stayed bridges, vortex shedding is of little concern, but for a guyed tower where the mast is elastic, if vortex shedding is severe enough collapse can occur. Vortex shedding is mitigated on classic guyed towers using Stockbridge dampers. Since classical guy lattice towers have a limited compressive load capacity, the cables cannot be tensioned to a high degree, contributing to a vulnerability to aeroelastic flutter or “galloping”, where the cables flap up and down in the wind. 

Resonance is not a concern for the structure since the blade RPM is around 25-30 (0.45 Hertz) during steady-state operation, while the natural frequency of the guy cables tensioned to 300,000 Newtons each (safety factor of 3x), the cables find their natural vibration at 0.11 Hertz. All the other frequencies, be they vortex shedding or the nacelle, are much higher than these. Of all the different frequencies, the one that is closest is the cable’s natural frequency and the wind turbine’s rotational frequency, but this difference is still over 4.5 times, with no overlap unless the turbine is operated at very low speeds. Vortex shedding occurs at a frequency order of magnitude higher than what is a required to potentially produce frequencies in phase with the cable’s natural frequency. The Strouhal number for a 40-millimeter cable at a Reynolds number of 6000 (corresponding to the mean wind speed) is 0.199333, giving us a frequency of 59 hertz. The frequency of the nacelle is not remotely close, suggesting there is little opportunity for these three disparate frequencies to sync in phase-producing resonance. When the cable experiences wind speeds at its design maximum of 67 meters per second, its frequency increases to 335 hertz. For the main pressure column with a diameter of 450mm, the Reynolds number at the average wind speed is 72,000, producing a vortex shedding frequency of 5.33 hertz, when the speed increases to its rated maximum, the frequency goes up to 29 Hertz. The natural frequency of the pressurized is extremely low since it is so rigid, in the case of this analysis, the pressure columns’ frequency does warrant concern. If we plot the four disparate structural frequencies, we do find any significant overlap. The only potential for natural frequencies and the forces of outside forces to overlap is when the main rotor RPM slows down. If the main rotor operated continuously at 6.6 RPM, it would match the natural frequency of the guy cables. As cable slack decreases as weight is placed on the tower, the natural frequency decreases, the actual tension on the cable is somewhat lower than the initial tension, allowing the turbine a safe margin to drop down to low RPMs without fear of being in phase with the cable. The vortex shedding frequency, both at low and high velocities, is far too high to lead to any overlap to occur. In some structures, such as skyscrapers, the geometry produces a structure whose natural elastic frequency matches nearly perfectly with prevailing vortex shedding frequencies. Even if parts of our structure had a frequency that were close to vortex shedding frequency, active dampening is more than capable of counterpoising any resonance. For the 9mm cables, the vortex shedding frequency is 265 and 1498 hertz at 12 and 67 meters per second respectively, the Strouhal number for the lateral cables is 0.199556 for a Reynolds number of 9000 and 0.1975 for a Reynolds number of 1600, corresponding to 12 and 67 meters per second. The vortex shedding frequency is easily calculated by multiplying the free stream velocity by the Strouhal number and diving by the cylinder’s diameter. The Strouhal can be roughly inferred by the Reynolds number. The calculation is often performed backward, where the Strouhal number is derived from the frequency and the freestream velocity.

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Strouhal number vs Reynolds number.

In the video below, the relative laxity of the cables is readily illustrated. In a pressurized media tower, the cables are highly tensioned, since after all, they are continuously carrying the load of the piston minus the force acting on it. The more weight is placed on the tower, the less tension the cables experience. Even in a cable-stayed bridge, the bridge deck is still an elastic structure, whose rigidity is a direct function of its dead weight and lateral and torsional stiffness. Bridge decks are designed to move slightly, hence a cable-stayed bridge, like a guyed mast, is a somewhat elastic structure. A hydrostatic column is not an elastic structure, since the upward force produced by the pressure acting on the piston serves to apply a constant tension, absorbing all forces applied to the structure. Applying tension dramatically reduces galloping, since a tensioned cable requires considerable force to stretch, wind loads lack this force hence the cables find a natural spot where they remain undisturbed. Classic guy towers use Stockbridge dampers to control low amplitude high-frequency vibrations, for high amplitude low-frequency vibration, hydraulic cylinders are used on cable-stayed bridges that connect orthogonally to the cable, but conventional guy towers make no use of high amplitude dampening technology since they do not find any issue with excitation and resonance. Of all the documented cases of catastrophic guy tower failure, most are attributable to bolt failures, anchor failures, or metal fatigue, but no cases of resonance-induced failure have been documented, most failures are caused by excessive static wind loads exceeding the bending strength of the tubular lattice inducing a progressive torsional collapse of the lattice. 

Since cables are elastic members (they are only rigid in longitudinal tension), they have unlimited degrees of freedom perpendicular to their span. For a 120,000 kg ultimate breaking strength cable, the sag will be about 2.43 meters for a flat span, since the cable is at a 59-degree angle, the vertical sag is only 1.52 meters tangent to the cable The prevailing wind loads are far too small to move the cable back from its natural sag state, only when the wind loads approach the rated limit does the cable have the ability to flutter significantly. To cancel the transmission of cable flutter and vibration, lateral dampers can be fitted on the tower apex structure, allowing the cable to move perpendicular to its longitudinal orientation, while retaining its lengthwise tension. At the cable base mooring point where the winches are placed, each winch is attached to a hydraulic damper which provides widthwise degrees of freedom, absorbing any cable fluttering energy. The level of tension on the cables, unlike a guy tower where the tension is relatively minor, prevents excessive cable movement, tension does naturally increase the frequency of vibration since the degrees of freedom are restricted, motion will be absorbed through more rapid iterations.

The principle rationale of the invention is premised on the idea of structural efficiency, a measure of the ratio between the weight of a structure and its load capacity holding material density constant. 

Structural efficiency is paramount in mass-sensitive engineering disciplines, such as heavier than air aircraft. Modern wide-body aircraft have superlative structural efficiency, but most aircraft structural components are not slender enough to experience pre-mature plastic deformation such as Euler buckling. For example, the mass of the main-wing module of a Boeing 747 is 45,000 kg, while its takeoff weight can approach 400,000 kg, which yields a weight-load ratio of 10:1.

In the case of the pressurized media tower, the structural efficiency is 8.6:1 at 45 MPa and 7.8:1 at 8 MPa. A conventional tower will usually feature a negative structural efficiency, meaning it will be heavier than its supported load.

While hydrostatic force is not harnessed for structural engineering, many disciplines have made full use of it. The power of hydrostatic force is exploited in virtually all thermal engines, with the first British condensing steam engines using the hydrostatic force of the atmosphere to push the piston into a partial vacuum. A modern diesel engine uses immense hydrostatic force, often 200 bar at peaking firing pressure, to generate its power. A hydraulic ram on an excavator generates tens of tons of linear force by highly compressed oil, not to mention the power generated from large streams of water in dams. The power of hydrostatic force is often overlooked and has rarely been applied to structural engineering. In some instances, structural engineering has been able to make use of pressurized mediums, such as inflatable domes, automobile tires, and basketballs, all of these structures make use of hydrostatic force to function and attain stiffness, but are very rudimentary and cannot be used to generate complex structures. There are four main components that make up the self-erecting pressurized media tower

#1 Load-bearing piston and torsion platform: This module comprises the free-floating hermetic piston with the diaphragm assembly connected to the end of the pressure column, 

#2 Pressure column: Hydrostatic containment structure0.8 meter diameter aluminum 7075 oil quenched sectional seamless pipe with end threads.

#3 Cables: Guy cables or stay assembly with winches, 2000-3500 MPa steel with plastic sheathing and Spelter socket end termination. Cables feed into automatic electric winches with self-locking function and built-in hydraulic dampers.

#4 Ground anchors: Underground steel spherical plates are covered with soil, the weight of soil provides vertical load capacity. Anchors are galvanically protected using impressed current cathodic protection. If steel alloys that are sensitive to hydrogen embrittlement are used, alternative corrosion protection methods must be used.

#5 Foundation pad with underground erection silo. The silo accommodates the unique “constant diameter telescoping mast” which is lifted into place by inserting 10-meter tube sections and threading them together. The underground tube extension silo features a nitrogen compressor, and PSA unit, with a multi-function tube insertion, sealing, and partition mechanism that facilitates the continuous telescoping process.

Further description of the working principle. 

As the open-ended cylinder is filled, the piston is pushed to the end of the cylinder until it exits the end. Guy cables are fastened to a bracket that rests above the piston, preventing the piston from exiting, thereby generating tension on the cables. The tube is placed vertically in the air, with the piston all the way at the top of the tube just near the end, the bottom of the tube is attached to a foundation pad, bearing the weight of the hydrostatic force as well as the weight of the tube. As said previously, The pressure-bearing cylinder is subject only to hoop stress, the cylinder bears none of the weight that can be placed atop the piston. This allows the tube to be designed as an ultra-slender member thanks to the fact we eliminated lateral and compressive loads. At the base of the column, a concrete pad bears the weight of the bottom section of the cylinder, since the apex piston is paralleled by a base piston, with the same frictionless sealing mechanism. The column is a slender cylinder, designed to withstand the internal pressure of the hydrostatic media only, the column derives its lateral stability from a series of guys, much like a classic guyed communication tower. At the end of the cylinder, the piston is able to reciprocate up and down freely, transferring one of its linear forces to the walls of the tube. As the column is filled with a pressurized medium, the piston is subject to a force equal to the pressure times the area. This force would result in the piston being lifted with great speed until it exits the end of the cylinder, the guy cables carry all of this force and transfer it to the foundation pads on the ground. One of the most elegant aspects of this structural technology is its exploitation of the inherent desire for materials, be they metals or composite fibers, to be loaded in a tensile regime. All plastic materials perform better in tension than compression since they are elastic. A 900 kg carbon steel cable can carry 250,000 Newtons of force over a span of 300 meters, while the equivalent compressively loaded member would weigh more than the load. The choice of cabling material is narrowed down to high-strength steel wire for reasons of low creep, low cost, and high specific strength. Synthetic fiber cables can be used, but a number of limitations exist. Ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene could be used, but excessive creep, as high as 5% per anum, limits its long-term use without frequent cable swapping. Aramid or Kevlar is another option, but its poor abrasion resistance means it must be lined with a suitable housing or it will rapidly fray and degrade if winched back and forth frequently. Kevlar does possess higher specific strength than steel, but unfortunately, the higher specific strength does not compensate for its higher cost, around $25/kg. For example, a 1960 MPa steel cable 35 millimeters in diameter has a breaking strength of 71,000 kg with a weight per meter of 4.28 kg, while the same breaking strength Aramid rope has a mass of 1.28 kg/m, a difference of only 3.34 times, while the cost is 25 times higher, or after specific strength, 7.5 times higher. Considering its poor abrasion resistance, Aramid is not an attractive option. Since polyester, nylon, and polypropylene are either too weak or too creep prone, and Vectran, Twaron, Technora, or Zylon are too niche for widespread commercial use, the choice is narrowed down to ferrous metal, which enjoys widespread and extremely reliable use in cable-stayed bridge. The ultimate tensile strength of SWRH 82B carbon steel cable alloy ranges as high as 2100 MPa and SWRH 82A can reach 2200 MPa. SWRH 82B high-carbon hard wire rod is alloyed with 0.79-0.84% carbon, 0.15-0.35% silicon, 0.70-0.90% manganese, over 0.1% but usually less than 1.0% chromium and vanadium, 0.008% of aluminum, and 0.030% of phosphorous. The breaking strength of 82B wire 21mm in diameter is 57,000 kg. The weight per meter is approximately 2.4 kg, and a total of 3,000 kg of cabling is used for restraining the piston. The cost of carbon steel wire, which has extensive use in prestressed concrete, is typically below $1000/ton, while some extremely high-performance cables can exceed $1000/ton, even using the highest strength and price steel, the total cabling cost is negligible. 

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The superior strength of steel cabling over solid rods is attributable to the work hardening from the cold drawing of the wire. The plastic deformation that occurs creates a more robust and uniform grain structure at the parameter of the wire, which is why as the wire shrinks in diameter, its tensile strength increases. Constructing a steel cable out of multiple small diameter wires serves to produce a far stronger product than would otherwise be achieved by the carbon steel alloy in a beam or rod configuration. Additionally, since each wire is allowed to move relative to another adjacent wire, the loaded component is made more dynamic as loads can be distributed onto surrounding wires. Yet another reason steel wire rope is stronger is due to the elimination of a single failure point. A grain structure weak spot or “flaw” does not compromise the entire structure, since the load is distributed among dozens of small wires. During wire drawing, a defective wire typically fails to properly extrude and hence will be discarded, resulting in a virtually flawless grain structure of superlative strength. Steel wire is produced using a novel production technique called “patenting” where the wire pre-wire rod is heated to the austenite phase at 970 °C and then quenched in a bath of molten salt or lead at a temperature in the bainite phase region of around 550 C. The wire is squeezed through a conical nozzle and has its diameter reduced many fold ultimately producing a more “compressed” grain structure. The wire is then kept at this range for a period of time and then ultimately allowed to cool to ambient temperature. The final product is a sorbite crystal structure material, made up of thin layers of cementite and ferrite. The higher the carbon content, the higher the tensile strength, the maximum carbon content is limited by the minimum degree of ductility required. Individual wire strength can be as high as 4000 newtons per square millimeter of the cross-sectional area for wires below 0.8 millimeters in diameter, the strength drops to 2000 N/mm2 for thicker wires. “Patenting” is an informal name for “Iso-Thermal Phase Transitioning”. The elasticity module of carbon steel wire is usually between 150,000 and 200,000 Newtons/mm2.

1960 MPa is by no means the limit for small diameter cold drawn eutectoid wire. The tire industry is constantly searching for mass-efficient reinforcing, rubber itself cannot withstand the tire pressures, rubber tires have made use of brass-coated steel reinforcing wires, usually less than 0.5mm in diameter and woven into a net-like pattern. The brass is present to maximize the adhesion of the rubber to the metal wire, brass strongly bonds with rubber whereas steel does not. The key metallurgical technique is to prevent the high carbon content from generating a brittle cementite grain structure, various elemental solutes serve to suppress this effect. It is not only the tire industry that generates demand for ultra-high strength wires, rubber hydraulic hoses are the second largest user of small-diameter steel cords.

Tire reinforcing chord had already reached a tensile strength of over 3000 MPa in the 1980s with recent developments approaching 4000 or more MPa. Tire cord, as well as piano wire to a lesser extent, are classified into four categories depending on their tensile strength.

  • “High Tensile Strength Steel (HT): carbon steel with a tensile strength of at least 3400 MPa @ 0.20 mm filament diameter;
  • “Super Tensile Strength Steel” (ST): carbon steel with a tensile strength of at least 3650 MPa @ 0.20 mm filament diameter;
  • “Ultra Tensile Strength Steel” (UT): carbon steel with a tensile strength of at least 4000 MPa @0.20 mm filament diameter
  • “Mega Tensile Strength Steel” (MT): carbon steel with a tensile strength of at least 4500 MPa @ 0.20 mm filament diameter.

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As early as 1970 tire chord metallurgy reached the 3 gigapascal mark, by 1980, it increased to 3300 MPa, by 1990, 3600 MPa, and by the year 2000, the 4000 MPa threshold was crossed. 5000 MPa is possible with a wire size of 60 microns. Note that it is possible to simply braid the ultra-fine wires into any size wire rope needed, and unlike composites, they do not suffer from abrasive weakening. Hyperecutectoid steels are those with high carbon contents and an almost purely pearlite grain structure, composed of layers or “lamalars” of martensite and ferrite. If the carbon content is increased to 1.8%, the tensle strength could approach 5500 MPa. Presently, 4000 MPa tire wires are commercially available and manufactured by Kobelco, Nippon steel, Kawasaki Steel, Kobe Steel, Goodyear, Bekaert, Pohang Iron and Steel Company, among others. These respective companies have been commercially manufacturing and selling wires with tensile strengths over 3500 MPa for decades, the processes are rudimentary and merely involve plastic deformation and thermal modulation to attain optimal grain structures. Unlike exotic fiber manufacturing where highly complicated chemistry is involved, metallurgy is quite a bit simpler since the process of weaving is not nearly as delicate since the wires themselves are much thicker than synthetic fibers. Amit Prakash, who once worked for Goodyear, started a company called WireTough Cylinders aimed at commercializing the first wire-wrapped steel pressure vessel for hydrogen storage. The vessel has enjoyed success for stationary hydrogen storage. Exploiting the much higher tensile strength of wire and their low cost compared to carbon or kevlar, they can construct pressure vessels with equivalent pressure ratings of carbon fiber at a tiny fraction of the cost.

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Wire-wrapped pressure vessel by WireTough CylindersLLC

Goodyear filed a patent in 2002 for a 4500 MPa wire with a drawing diameter of 0.2 mm, the elemental composition of their alloy is as follows: 0.95% to 1.3% carbon, 0. 2% to 1.8% chromium

0.2% to 0.8% manganese, 0.2% to 1.2% silicon, 

less than 2.2% cobalt, less than 0.1 niobium, and boron at between 0.006 and 0.0025 parts per million.

The strongest steals, such as bearing steels and ultra high strength steels used in landing gear and bunker penetrating bombs, namely Maraging steel, Eglin steel, Aermet 100/310/340, USAF-96, M50, and Ferrium S53, among others, are steels with tensile strengths of 2000 MPa, but seem to be approaching physical limits. Maraging steel unlike the rest is ductile, but the tempered alloys suffer from increased brittleness as the tensile strength increases. The primary limitation of Maraging steel is its heavy use of cobalt and molybdenum, not to mention the 20% nickel. When it comes to materials even stronger than metals, we are left principally with synthetic fibers, made by spinning liquid crystal polymers, aromatic polyamide, polyethylene in a high molecular weight form, or silica, alumina, carbon, or liquid-crystalline polyoxazole. These high-end fibers, despite possessing immense tensile strength, with the exception of carbon, have a very low modulus of elasticity, and hence find applications only in purely tension-loaded applications. But even in tension-loaded applications, namely cable and rope, these fibers still trail far behind steel. A further issue with using these fibers in even tensile applications such as rope and cabling is their loss of strength when the fibers are woven due to abrasion and friction. Carbon and glass fibers cannot be used in woven rope since they are so brittle, and even Aramid, Vectran, Technoran, Zylon, and Polyethylene, all lose at least 50% of their strength when woven due to intra-fiber abrasion and shearing. For example, ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene has a tenacity of 40 grams per denier (1 gram fiber 9000 meters long), which translates to a breaking strength to weight ratio per 100 meters of 3600 times, but the actual ropes tested in the real world only achieve a breaking strength to weight ratio of 1475 times over a 100 meters. In the case of Aramid, the loss is less severe. Aramid fibers have a tenacity of about 25 grams per denier, or about 2270 times their mass over 100 meters, but Kevlar ropes tested only achieve 550 times their mass. In the case of Vectran, whose fibers possess a tenacity of 27 grams per denier, or 2450 times mass, the ropes achieve 1142 times strength, or a loss of about 50%. This loss may not be all that severe when one considers these already possess specific strengths seven-fold higher than steel, but this five-fold advantage over steel wire drops to only 3.5 when the net strength of the actual cable is factored, one cannot use the theoretical tensile strength or tenacity since it does not taken into account losses of strength due to abrasion. From a purely economic perspective, unless the application is simply extremely mass sensitive, all these fibers mentioned cost over $25 per kg and that is from Chinese retailers, they are at least $50 per in the West. Since carbon steel wire can achieve 3000 MPa at a density of 8 grams a cubic meter, the difference in specific strength is now only 3.5 times, but the cost difference is 25 times, carbon steel produced using cold drawing is about $1000/ton, so the net cost advantage of the steel is 7 times, even after adjusting for specific strength. Another factor that renders these fibers extremely limited in their practical application is their abrasion resistance. Kevlar and Vectran are not highly abrasion-resistant, if the cable were to be wound back and forth in a winch, they would lose considerable strength over time. A second factor is their proneness to being cut, it is extremely difficult to top cut a 40millimeter steel cable, but a fiber cable can be snipped with ease. In the case of high molecular weight polyethylene, it has a tendency to infinitely creep, that is elongate, until it reaches such a reduced diameter that it snaps. As a consequence, high-density polyethylene cannot be used for constant load applications, despite its toughness.

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UHMWPE is subject to excessive creep to be suitable for constant load applications such as our pressurized media tower, but Kevlar, Technora, or Vectran could all be used successfully were it not for their inordinate cost.

A 2 kg/meter cable built up from 8000 0.2mm 3500 MPa wire can safely handle a load of 37,000 kg with a factor of safety of 2.4 times. Spelter end termination which achieves 100% termination efficiency by pouring molten zinc into the individual frayed unwound cables, the issue is that with the higher strength wire, the joint will naturally be less efficient, since the wire’s increased strength does not automatically translate into more adhesion between the zinc and the wire’s surface. For the ultra-high strength wires proposed, it is foreseen that the best option is to construct the main cable out of multiple individual cables encased within a master sheathing and wrapped around a relatively soft coil at the torsion platform. On the ground, the cable is ultimately bearing on the winches’s surface, since each woven cable section is sheathed with its own polyethylene to protect it against abrasion. The more gradual the bend around the circle, the less stress is placed in compression.

The metallurgical characteristics of steel wire are a further endorsement of the merit of tensile-loaded structures as it helps facilitate an ever superior specific structural efficiency. 

The four wire-rope carbon-steel cables experience some degree of stretching when loaded, at a load factor of 30% of breaking strength, it will stretch below 1%. It should be noted that the commonly stated load ratings in cable catalogs are usually 5-15% greater than the advertised number. This increased length is then retracted using a winch mounted on the guy mooring sites. Note that this elongation experienced is not plastic elongation, since by definition the loading regime is always safely below yield. Elongation in steel wire cable loaded below its yield threshold experiences two types of elongation, elastic and “constructional elongation”. In the case of “constructional elongation”, as the cable is loaded, the diameter of the individual wire strands shrinks as they also become more tightly packed, causing a constriction in its diameter and hence an increase in its length. Elastic elongation is exactly what the name implies, every metal has a fixed modulus of elasticity, and steel will experience a slight stretching even if loading is kept far below yield. Another cause of elongation is thermal expansion, for every one-degree °C increase in temperature, the cable will elongate 3.3 millimeters at its full distance of 346 meters. A winch carries any of this slack by unwinding the cable’s slack as pressure from the piston is allowed to tension the cable enough to minimize the slack but with the winch motors allowing enough of a torque margin to allow the tower to climb during installation. The self-erection function is further explored later.

When the temperature is high during the day, the density of the liquid decreases slightly, and the volume it occupies increases, resulting in greater pressure. The converse happens when the temperature falls. 

This provides a brief overview of the technology, applications include not only wind power, but pile drivers, novel high elevation structures for human habitation, communication towers, cell, radio etc, and potentially stationary gantry cranes. 

The main application of this tower, and its invention origin, is wind energy, while there are nonetheless other niche applications, terrestrial energy harvesting is its prime target and hence we are forced to undertake a brief inquisition into the nature of wind energy and its dynamics. It goes without saying that there is an ever-growing need for inexhaustible and clean energy, one such source is terrestrial wind power. In order to make existing wind turbine technology more competitive, reduce cost, and generate more energy, the ability to practically exploit higher velocity wind is desired. Since the energy from wind is the cube of the velocity, increasing the velocity only slightly has very significant effects on the annual power output of the turbine. Unfortunately, only a select few sites on land feature wind speeds over 9 meters per second. On the other hand, at a height of 300 meters, many onshore sites around the world have wind speeds of up to 12 km/s. For example, using a hypothetical site in the Nebraska sandhills, the average wind speed at 100 meters is 8.65 m/s, yet it increases to 10.66 at 200 meters. At 300 meters, the speed increases to around 11.65, or a factor of 1.10, the exact number was around 1.094. This is slightly more than the standard power-law prediction using surface roughness, this estimate was sourced from the USDE’s “project independence” from the 1970s which studied building wind turbines as high as 1000 feet. They estimated the mean wind speed at 1000 feet in Caspar Wyoming to be approximately 1.092x times the speed at 600 feet (182 meters). Using the Enercon E44 turbine, the power output at 8.7 meters per second is around 340 kW, the power output at 12 meters per second is close to a thousand kW. This difference in speed from 300 meters to 100 meters would yield an additional 5300-megawatt hours for this 40-meter diameter turbine. That is with an increase of only 3.3 meters per second, the power output nearly triples. This triples the potential revenue of the turbine and the concomitant return on investment. Beyond merely the velocity of the wind, another major benefit of increasing altitude is the reduction in variability encountered. The hourly variability of the wind speed at 200 meters estimated from the global wind atlas at the Nebraska location is only plus or minus 10% of the mean, allowing our turbine to produce grid-suitable power.

It’s worth spending a brief time understanding the somewhat nebulous concept of capacity factors when dealing with the power output of wind turbines. Because our technology increases the mean wind speed significantly, we are making the concept of a capacity factor less useful. The so-called “capacity factor” is an arbitrary concept and makes the turbine look less efficient than it really is, it’s an abstract concept that needs disbanding. The silly idea of a “capacity factor” probably originates from a clever but deceptive marketing gimmick contrived by the wind industry to sell models that appeared more powerful than they really are. A capacity factor would be like advertising a car engine of five liters of displacement being able to produce a thousand horsepower running in nitrous on a racetrack. If we had enough cylinder pressure, coolant flow, and oxidizer intake, we could easily a thousand horsepower with a tiny little car engine, but in the real world running on gasoline, it will produce this much power, even though the piston and crankshaft have the strength and size to produce the claimed amount of power. A tiny wind turbine could produce megawatts if the average wind speed were 30 meters per second, but it would be completely useless to even measure it at such speeds, since a normally distributed wind gaussian curve will only produce such fast winds a tiny fraction of the time. 

The capacity factor is a way for manufacturers to simply test the turbine in unrealistically fast winds and claim it produces “500 kW” while it would only produce 150 kW in the normal wind regime it would encounter on a day-to-day basis. The concept of capacity factor confuses people since it looks like the machine is producing less power than the average wind speed would predict when in reality this is only because the turbine’s generator is significantly oversized. Most wind turbines are “rated” at a certain wind speed, meaning they feature a generator whose size corresponds to an arbitrary power setting. This rated wind speed is usually an arbitrarily chosen velocity that is far higher than the mean wind speed of the site and even higher than the occasional peak winds of a typical site. For example, the Enercon E-44, one of the highest power density wind turbines on the market, is rated at an absurdly high mean wind speed of 16.5 meters per second, which is almost impossible to find even at 300 meters of altitude. So anytime this turbine installed at a typical site, its “capacity factor” will be minuscule, say 20%. This is where the discrepancy between the turbine’s theoretical power and its annual yield emerges, which is often as high as a factor of 3, meaning the turbine produces only a third of its theoretical higher speed power potential. It’s not just the Enercon E-44 that’s rated at an unrealistic speed, the rated wind speed is often as high as 13-15 meters per second for many commercial turbines, which is obviously considerably higher than what can be found at a typical hub height of 50-100 meters. The result is that the annual power output of the turbines looks to be less than its “rated” kW capacity, so according to this definition, it ends up producing less power than it could in theory. Of course, upon closer examination, this concept is flawed, since unlike a solar panel, which is rated for the most intense period of insolation possible, which always occurs by definition at a certain time of day, namely when the sun shines at peak hours, a wind turbine does not need to be measured at a higher than mean wind velocity, it can be sized very close to the mean speed and simply feathered when velocities exceed the generation capacity of the alternator. The sun always produces a peak irradiance a certain percent of the time, while in many geographies, the wind will nearly always blow at a mean speed of say 9 meters per second, but no one can say the sun shines at a “mean” irradiance of 1 kW, since by definition this only occurs a few hours of the day, but our panel requires this maximum capacity as to not squander this concentrated but small window of solar energy. 

Of course, the designer would be still encouraged to somewhat oversize the generator, this is understandable since wind regimes can momentarily exceed the mean by a significant margin above-average temporality in rare instances, and since most power is captured at the higher end of the spectrum, it can be understood why most turbines are oversized. But this is precisely where our design begins to modify the standard dogma, because low-altitude turbines are subject to more wind variability, there is a greater need to oversize the generator. The lower the wind speed, the greater the temporal variation, for example, in a 4.8 m/s wind regime at 50 meters, the variation daily ranges from 0.76 at 18 hours and 1.29 at 0 hours. In a higher altitude regime, where the hydrostatic turbine is installed, for example at 300 meters in Nebraska, the mean wind speed will be about 11.5-12 meters per second, with an hourly temporal variance of only +- 10%, which is far less than at 4 meters per second. This means our turbine will produce an annual power output nearly equal to the mean wind speed, since we can expect only a ten percent velocity drop off at any given hour, and this is compensated by a ten percent uptick at another time increment. The square-cube laws mean the bulk of the power is produced in the upper half of the median wind distribution, wind speed follows a normal distribution, but its usually measured as a “Weibull” distribution, where each speed incremented is measured as a percentage. A cubed relationship means the increase grows exponentially, so a drop in wind speeds produces a smaller corresponding drop in power than an equal uptick in wind speed. Either way, the capacity factor concept is misleading and should be abandoned. If our mean wind speed, especially at higher altitudes, shows little to no sharp variability, with only a 1.2 meter per second drop or upstick, the turbine will produce close to this number over the course of a year, it will produce no more or less than this.

A possible departure from fiber-glass blading

Abrasion and pitting of the blade surface is a notorious problem on fiberglass blades for obvious reasons, fiberglass is porous and has a heterogeneous surface, it is prone to flaking and pitting. The biggest limitation with fiberglass is the weakness of the resin, epoxy resins are incredibly prone to UV-induced degradation, oxidation, mold, and chemical decomposition, since the fibers on their own possess no intrinsic rigidity, fiberglass is only as strong as its weakest link: resin. On the other hand, using steel blades where the maximum bending load is kept well below the fatigue limit, blades can remain highly smooth over time. 

Hydrostatus systems has designed a novel fastener-free blade system using pre-stressed cabling spanning internally through solidly machined blade sections which form the loading spar. These solidly machined sections are free of mechanical fasteners, they are held together with the tension of the cables with elastomeric connection points, minimizing stress concentration at the connection points. Centrifugal force straightens the initially curved blade section as the rotor spins. The pres-stressing serves to strongly prevent blade bending since rather than tensile strength at the blade root, all the stress is in the form of compression derived from the pre-stressing. Note that centrifugal forces operate only in the reference frame, they do not “pull” the blade from its hub, but the blade is still rigidified from the centrifugal forces operating within its moving reference frame, but there is no force from the stationary reference frame.

There’s a very common and incorrect assumption that a component made from ferrous alloys must inherently be “heavy”. Is an axle made of high-end alloy steel “heavier” than a plastic stick? Of course, the axle is heavier, but not if adjusted for strength, which is the ultimate determining of how much material we need to construct a component. One has to depart from using density as a metric of evaluation and use specific strength. High-end alloy steels possess yield strengths in excess of 800 MPa, while they feature a density of usually below 8 grams/cm3. A typical glass fiber reinforced polymer rebar is only 590 MPa, but alas material science is more complicated than tensile strength. While it would seem as if our glass fiber blade with its nearly 600 MPa tensile strength with a meager 1.8 gram/cm3 density would far outclass the 4140 steel blade, once we enter another variable in: the elasticity modulus (a measure of a material’s resistance to plastic deformation), fiberglass cannot hold a candle to steel. 4140 steel has a modulus of elasticity of 300 gigapascals, while fiberglass is only 39. Since a blade is highly slender and must be extremely resistant to bending, one has to seriously wonder why an entire generation of designers has chosen a material with such poor stiffness! If we compare the Young’s modulus (a measure of deformation under a stretching regime lengthwise), fiberglass polymer is 14 GPa, while 4140 steel is 210 GPa. If we compare the shear modulus, we find a similar pattern, fiberglass has a shear modulus of 10 GPa while 4140 is 80. Tensile strength is a meaningless metric unless we compare the metrics that pertain to the rigidity and resistance to deformation, if these metrics are taken into account, there is no weight advantage at all to fiberglass, in fact, fiberglass would be heavier if the deformation rate is held constant. Hydrostatus Systems has designed the turbine to be entirely free from short-lived brittle glass fiber composites and constructs its blades from high fatigue strength steel. 4140 steel is nearly 8 times more resistant to deformation than fiberglass but only weighs four times more. In conclusion, fiberglass is a mediocre, short-lived, and labor-intensive material that should be dispensed with. From an environmental perspective, fiberglass is appalling, since there is no way to salvage the fibers from the adhesive binder, fiber-glass blades are landfilled when their short useful life is reached. Steel can be indefinitely recycled. Fiberglass, which derives its rigidity entirely from the epoxy resin, degrades due to moisture, abrasion, and UV which limits the useful life of the blades to at best 20 years. Using steel, the useful life of the blades can be extended to at least 30 years, lowering the LCOE even further. Fatigue stresses are often cited as a reason to choose fiber-glass, but upon further examination, this is not a valid rationalization. The maximum stress that will occur on the blade is not from the force of the lift causing it to rotate, this force is marginal, only around 8000 Newtons would be experienced by a single 800 kW turbine spinning at 15 RPM with a blade diameter of 47 meters. This force is insufficient to cause but a tiny bending moment in the spinning blade. Centrifugal forces do not operate in the reference frame, so the only major loads on the blades are from major gusts which can suddenly hit the unfurled blade at a high angle of attack from the from. For a maximum wind rating of 55 m/s, a maximum force of 55,000 newtons is placed on the unfurled blade for our design criteria, this causes a stress of 250 MPa and a displacement of 500 millimeters for our guyed design. This stress amplitude is far below the fatigue limit and therefore can be operated with concern for fatigue failure if a sufficiently ductile steel alloy is used. The 47-meter blade weighs 3,300 kg constructed from 4140 steel and can be easily constructed using the very old method of aircraft wing construction. The blade is comprised of two 8mm thick spars with ribs spaced every meter. The skin thickness of the blade is only 3.1 millimeters thick. Despite the blade’s very thin skin, the maximum von Mises stress is only 160 MPa, providing a factor of safety of 5 or more. The maximum bending moment on the blade when it is pre-cambered is roughly 500 millimeters, to achieve the same stiffness would require fiberglass as thick as 30 millimeters along the spar. There is no evidence suggesting that adjusting for tensile strength and elasticity, that steel blades are heavier on a specific strength basis.

S/N curve for 4140 steel without connections.

S-N-curve-of-4140-steel-material

Fatigue stress has been cited as a reason to choose fibrous polymer composites over classic metallic materials, but upon closer examination, there seems to be little data to substantiate this assertion. Throughout virtually any industry, schools of thought or “dogmas” evolve through a combination of experience and spontaneous circumstances, but often, flawed assumptions take hold and perniciously cement themselves which serves to dissuade any deviation from the canonical approach. If we examine the “fatigue argument” against metal blades, we can obviously scoff at this claim by simply citing the fact that aircraft wings, which are subject to constant flapping, bending, and twisting, yet perform flawlessly over hundreds of thousands of hours without failure is a testament to the stellar fatigue resistance of metal. And let us not forget aircraft wings are constructed from aluminum, which has no fatigue limit, and let us not forget that aircraft wings are also designed with a factor of safety of only 1.5, which is the most aviation can tolerate due to the mass penalty that any higher safety factor would entail. If 4140 steel is loaded below a stress amplitude of 500 MPa, the number of cycles that can be expected without failure is ten billion. Of course, if any fasteners or welding is used, this decreases considerably since stress amplitudes tend to concentrate at connections and joints, hence the choice of a pre-stressed blade with flexible elastomeric joints. 

The maximum stress amplitude during a once-in-a-century wind regime of 67 meters per second when the blade is not furled is below 200 MPa, the ordinary operational stress is only 20 or 30 MPa from lift-induced bending and torque of the rotating assembly. Aside from the clear superiority held by ferrous alloys, we can turn to another conspicuous advantage that metallic construction boasts: built-up modular construction. Fiberglass is after all a fibrous material, long sheets of woven cloth are laid down on a mold the size of the entire blade since fiberglass is too brittle to perform intermediate fastening of the blade. Mechanical fasteners are useless in fiberglass construction since concentrate loads in the direction in which the material is weakest: perpendicular to the fiber’s longitudinal orientation. It should be remembered that fiber-glass or any fiber-reinforced polymer is anisotropic, that is its strength depends to a large extent on the orientation of the fibers, which is why classic finite element method programs cannot simulate these types of materials. In light of these sui generis properties of fibers, the blade must be constructed in unison as a singular member, requiring massive molds which are costly to construct. Standing in stark contrast, steel blading is inordinately simpler to fabricate and assemble. Since the skin thickness of the blade skin is so small, the individual sheets can be easily formed using standard automotive panel stamping or even more conveniently using manual forming. The size of an individual panel is little more than 1.2 meters squared, and can be easily manipulated using standard metal fabrication equipment, although or method is to machine individual blade modules in a single monolith, alternative methods exist which are simpler, but would suffer from poorer fatigue life. When it comes to fabricating the spars and ribs, low-cost laser cutting equipment can be used. All the components are constructed from commercial rolled-steel that can be bought in wholesale quantities from below $800 per ton. Unlike fiber-glass which requires vacuum bagging for resin injection and curing, rolling, removal of cresses, etc, steel is easily mechanically fastened. Welding is not desirable since it compromises the fatigue strength compared to the baseline material, while riveting or bolting does not. Another crucial advantage offered by metal is the ability to perform local repairs. For example, imagine a drone strikes a fiber-glass blade, since fiber-glass cannot simply be cut and fastened back in place, the entire blade has to be scrapped, wasting resources and manpower to construct an entirely new blade. Since we have not mentioned fracture resistance, fiber-glass is far poorer than steel which means that our metallic blade will be much less prone to bird strikes, pitting, and the infinitesimally small chance of a drone strike.

CAD Model of the individual blade panel, the dimensions are within the range of low-cost forming equipment or CNC machining.

Returning to the core technology in question, the basic rationalization or “raison d’etre” of the invention, is that since wind speed decays rapidly towards the ground due to surface roughness, there is a strong incentive to design a new generation of high-altitude wind turbines. The impetus of the invention is the inability of classic tower technology to facilitate such heights feasibly and cost-effectively. Conventional steel wind turbine towers rarely exceed 100 meters onshore, squandering the vast potential of higher speed above. There exists an almost unlimited potential to tap into this vast reservoir of relatively dense and free energy, but man presently lacks the capacity to due do, as always because of a lack of technology. The principal limitation preventing designers from reaching these higher speed winds at 300 meters or more is the weight and concomitant cost of the conventional steel tower begins to escalate dramatically since the diameter has to be held constant for transportation reasons. This means the thickness of the tube increases exponentially with its height to maintain the same degree of rigidity as could be achieved if the thickness remained constant and the width merely increased. Conventional wind turbine towers are constructed from colled-rolled steel drums, and as the thickness of the plates grows, the cost of the slip roller escalates dramatically, making it completely uneconomic. This cylindrical column is subject to both compressive loads from the weight of the nacelle as well as tensile and compressive loads from the mast bending moment due to static wind loads. In order to achieve a minimum degree of rigidity, for a 1 MW wind turbine, a 200-meter conventional steel tower would weigh over 330 tons, the cost of fabricating and erecting such a heavy tower is prohibitive, hence the current practice of remaining at around 100 meters or less of hub height for onshore turbines. The cost of a 300-meter standalone tower made is not even estimated since it would weigh over 500 tons. In light of these limitations, a better solution is called for, the aim of this invention is to facilitate the design of high-altitude wind turbines using a lightweight low-cost structure employing above mentioned principle of hydrostatic force. Assuredly, by using this elegant structure, the material reduction and subsequent power density of wind energy are improved dramatically. The benchmark for energy density and EROI (which are closely related) has always been nuclear fission, with deuterium-tritium fusion the only conceivable energy technology that surpasses it. But in practice, a fission reactor in a pressurized water configuration has actually a lower power density than diesel or gas turbine powerplants. This is evidenced by the fact that the average pressurized light water reactor constructed in the U.S during the 1970s used approximately 45 tons of steel and 120 tons of concrete per megawatt of electrical capacity. The average coal Rankine powerplant uses 98 tons of steel and a 160 tons of concrete per megawatt. Conventional wind turbines use far more than this, but since a large preponderance of this weight is concentrated in the tower structure and since the rated output is limited to low altitude slow winds, when the load-bearing tower structure is eliminated and the higher wind speeds are accounted for, the steel required is reduced markedly since the power density rises sharply. As mentioned above, the weight of a 210-ton payload tube is only 33 tons, this 210-ton payload is enough to bear the 35-ton weight of a 1000-kilowatt turbine plus the roughly 40 tons of maximum aerodynamic load from a 150 mph wind regime. This power density translates into a steel requirement that is not much higher than the 1970s PWRs and approximately that of a coal power plant. This means high altitude horizontal axis wind power has a superior or equal power density than solid hydrocarbon combustion in a steam Rankine cycle! That is an impressive and unparalleled feat of engineering. The ability of a wind energy system, harvesting free terrestrial energy, to achieve a power density almost as high or equal to state-of-the-art nuclear and coal power plants is nothing short of astonishing and achievable only with Hydrostatus high pressurized tower technology.

The notion that nuclear energy has superlative power density is only correct insofar as the heat release per gram of uranium is immense, but the requirement for containment structures to fulfill conservative regulations translates into a need for a high factor of safety, which leads to substantial material requirements. If one examines a picture of a nuclear reactor cutaway diagram, one will notice the actual reactor core is a tiny little thing in comparison to the total ancillary and containment systems. Notice that many of the “new generation” reactors use just as much steel per megawatt as the old boiling and pressurized water architectures. The Russian “Gas Turbine Modular Helium Reactor” requires just as much steel as a 1970s PWR. If such a complicated and advanced technology, advanced to the point of being undeniable impressive and elegant, far more so than a coal-burning machine or a windmill, but ends up using just as much material as a lowly windmill to generate a kilowatt of power, one has to ask whether it is worth the price of assuming the complexity factor that comes with the more advanced technology. But one also to also remember that nuclear reactors do not only use steel, they require beryllium for neutron reflection to protect workers, hafnium for neutron absorption, niobium for alloying the reactor core components to prevent neutron embrittlement, and zirconium for cladding. Neutron embrittlement is the Achilles heel of fission power, the current EDF fleet, viewed as the poster-child of a successful PWR fleet, is currently experiencing corrosion in its piping systems which has resulted in a total of 12 of the 56 in the fleet being forced offline. Although the official report states “stress-corrosion” detected with ultrasonic analysis, which is not inherently caused by neutron embrittlement, it’s likely the etiology can be traced to some form of grain structure weakening from neutron bombardment. Neutron bombardment of metal does not only cause embrittlement, it also induces elemental transformation and migration within the alloy as well as negative evolution of the grain structure. Breeder reactors, due to their much higher neutron flux, would experience more rapid metal degeneration from embrittlement. The global reserves of these respective elements, unlike neodymium, places a clear cap on fission scalability, and even if the unlikely of confined fusion happens, there will not be the capacity to produce the lithium-6 needed, so it evidently looks as if lowly windmills will play a pivotal role in hydrocarbon-free energy for the foreseeable future.

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In addition to the promising application for wind technology, the communication tower market is the prime first application for pressurized media technology. Present guyed mast systems have abysmal payload capacities, are prone to wind-induced swaying and fatigue failure, and are cumbersome to erect. Most guyed masts in the 100-meet range are able to bear only 45 kg of antenna weight excluding the weight of a maintenance worker. With Hydrostatus System’s self-tensioning tower technology, the same diameter and weight tower can carry tens of tons, many orders of magnitude more than a steel lattice structure. This has the potential to utterly transform the communication tower industry, allowing designers to place much heavier higher capacity antennas or place heavy long-term batteries to eliminate the need for backup generators or any power supply for that matter. The technology also eliminates the need for costly and dangerous rotorcraft erection.

Design variables of a pressurized media tower

A number of interesting geometric and mathematical phenomena impose design constraints on the technology. Surface-to-volume ratios and surface-to-length ratios play a major role in determining the design criteria that must be adhered to. From a material usage perspective, it is obvious that wind turbines desire to be as small as possible to achieve the highest power density. This is evident as the power output is directly proportional to the area, which is squared as a function of scale, while the material mass of the blades, nacelle, and tower are cubed. This means as the turbine grows in size, its mass relative to power increases exponentially. If the mass of a 40-meter diameter 550 kW turbine is say 24 tons, if the diameter of the swept area is doubled, the mass of the major components, whose size is a function of their loading (which scales linearly), the mass increases 8 fold to 192 tons, but the power only grows to 2260 kW, or four times. So this would seem to suggest we should design very small turbines, but there is a practical limit. Firstly, since each turbine has to be serviced and installed using heavy equipment to dig foundations, and connect electrical cables, a massive number of tiny turbines would be impractical. So there is a clear floor on how small it makes sense to design each turbine. With the pressurized media tower, there is a very convenient factor that helps us size the turbine. Since we want to minimize the number of mooring sites for the cables, we can simply find the distance between two towers holding the cable angle constant, in our case, the ideal cable for maximum stability is 55 to 60 degrees, with an ideal spacing of 8 times diameter With respect to maintenance and repairability, some may be skeptical about how such a narrow tower could possibly allow a person to visit the nacelle to perform servicing. While the present turbine design we have proposed does not make use of a closed nacelle, it features a safe walk platform from which a technician can unbolt the rear gearbox housing and lower it down to ground level. To reach the turbine platform, a hoist is used rather than a ladder, which is far safer and faster. A hoist, much like on a rescue helicopter, is kept mounted to the turbine platform at all times. A heavy sandbag is suspended from the hoist allowing it to be remotely descended to ground level where the technician can fasten the load hook to his harness and lift himself up alongside the side of the tower. Nothing about this technology compared to conventional turbines compromises safety. Since there is no seal, as the hydrostatic medium is contained within a hermetic system, failure can only occur if the guy wires are cut or terrorists fire at the column with large-caliber ammunition. The same vulnerability exists with conventional turbines since sabotage is readily performed by cutting power cables or firing at the nacelle which could cause a generator fire. Another immensely powerful advantage afforded by pressurized media tower technology is the ability to perform rapid tower descent, the entire turbine can be brought down to the ground level for inspection, maintenance, and overhaul without the use of a single crane. Workers operate from the safety of a concrete silo when simply removing the tube sections consecutively until the entire unit has been lifted down to ground level and the guy wires retracted into their underground winches. In the case of the pressurized media tower, there is another factor related to the tube diameter that plays an important role in its design. While the wind load of the tube can easily be born by the hydrostatic force on the piston, this is only the case as long as the length/diameter ratio is sufficiently low. If the length to diameter ratio is allowed to grow above a certain threshold, the wind force on the hydrostatic tube will exceed the upward force on the piston even at very high pressures. Since the ratio of tube wetted area to piston surface area is directly proportional to the diameter since the length is held constant, as the tube diameter is increased, its piston area to wetted area increases dramatically, allowing the designer to carry more wind and dead loads. At a pressure of 4.5 MPa, a diameter of 800 millimeters is ideal, giving a low drag coefficient of 0.3-0.35 at a high Reynolds number and allowing the design to place as much as 200 tons on the structure.

A 450mm millimeter diameter tube at 8 to 10 MPa is ideally suited for carrying all the loads that will be encountered for a 500-1000 kW turbine, if the turbine size decreases, the tube’s load-carrying efficiency falls to levels less than ideal. This leads us to settle on an optimal trade-off between turbine mass and tube load-carrying efficiency. Another factor mentioned in greater detail is the wind load on the guy cables. The smaller the turbine, the smaller the upward force required in the hydrostatic tube, this means very small cables can be used. But if cable size falls below 3 millimeters, their drag can exceed their rated load capacity, this effectively placed a lower limit on the size of a hydrostatic guyed structure or any cabled structure for that matter.

Before we discuss aerodynamics and drag, it must be emphasized that the choice of fluid impacts the final performance of the tower considerably.

#1 Pressure gradient with altitude: If a high-density hydraulic fluid is used, a greater pressure gradient will occur due to gravitational acceleration. Fluid at the bottom of the tower will be compressed by the weight of the fluid above it. For gases compressed to moderate pressures, the pressure gradient for 100 kg/m3 nitrogen gas is 3.9 atmospheres for 300 meters, or 0.013 bar/meter. The density of nitrogen at 8.5 MPa at an average site temperature of 7°C is 110 kg/m3. The mass of the total volume of gas is approximately 5,300 kg for nitrogen. Nitrogen has a cost equal to the power consumption and capital expenditure of the pressure swing absorption plant. The realistic cost of self-produced nitrogen is virtually nothing, less than 5 cents per kilogram.

#2 Center of gravity: Another design variable before we discuss drag is the design of the stabilizing or torsion platform. The stabilizing platform is the component that transfers the piston’s upward pressure to tension in the four lateral guy cables and the four vertical restraint cables. The further away the wind turbine’s bending moment is from the center of gravity, which by definition is directly above the piston, the wider the stabilizing bracket has to be to transfer the bending moment of the turbine to tension on the vertical cables and prevent the opposite cable from experiencing excessive slack as the platform pitches down slightly. There is also an option to place some form of base isolation mechanism to prevent excessive lateral movement from being transferred to the piston which places stress on its plastic seals. 

#3 Choice of hydrostatic media and optimal pressure: Hydraulic fluid is too heavy and costly to be used throughout the entire pressure column, leaving nitrogen as the only practical option. Lower pressure is ideal since the pressure column’s diameter can be increased with a thinner wall section providing greater lateral stability with the use of internal spars. A diameter for a 1000 kW turbine of between 800 and a 1000 millimeters is ideal, operating at a low pressure of 4-5 MPa. As mentioned already, the larger the diameter of the cylinder, the more force we produce compared to the amount of drag that has to be withstood. As the cylinder grows in diameter, the physical dimension increases, increasing the Reynolds number and reducing the drag load. This would suggest the designer should lean towards lower pressure but somewhat larger tubing, but still narrow enough to be easily fabricated and handled in the telescoping silo. Wider tubing also enjoys the advantage of being literally more stable, requiring fewer stabilizing intermediate guy cables to prevent it from bending in the wind.

#4 Sealing options and leakage: It is critical to minimize the amount of friction occurring between the piston and cylinder walls to ensure only a small load can ever be transferred to the pipe before the piston reciprocates inside the cylinder. In act, this could be argued to be our sine qua non, in that if we cannot achieve this, the structure fails to live up to its promise.

The constant flow-hydraulic seal:

Hydrostatus Systems has evaluated a number of different frictionless sealing options and settled with a closed cycle constant flow high viscosity oil seal. A closed cycle constant flow high viscosity seal uses high viscosity oil passing through a narrow gap between the cylinder and cylinder wall to induce pressure drop, keeping the flow to manageable levels. As the oil makes a complete passage from the bottom to the top of the piston, it has lost all its original pressure by using up its momentum to overcome viscous and internal drag and when it exits the cylinder gap it possesses a pressure barely above atmospheric and must be repressurized to be introduced back into the column. Using ultra-high viscosity gear oil designed for achieving large film thickness on gear surfaces, the pressure drop across a long piston with the average surface roughness of polished steel (is sufficient to keep the passage of oil through the gap very small. A certain amount of fluid is allowed to pass through a 0.2-0.5mm gap between the piston sleeve and the cylinder wall, as the high viscosity fluid is pressurized to 4.5 MPa it passes through the high surface area gap, viscous friction causes the pressure to drop, maintaining a very low flow rate. The flow rate for high viscosity hydraulic fluid is only 12 liters per minute. A hydraulic pump mounted on the tower head repressurizes the fluid to the operating pressure of the gas column. Since the gas and fluid should not mix, a flexible partition liner is placed just beneath the piston, the oil is merely suspended beneath the piston a few centimeters, the rest of the column is filled with air which maintains the pressure of the fluid suspended above the partition diaphragm. The design has the added advantage of achieving absolutely zero friction, since there is no force pushing a piston ring against the wall, the fluid pressure is acting outwardly on the piston. The viscosity of Mobil SHC 6800 at 40 °C is 8200 centistokes, at 20 °C, it increases to 23,000 centistokes, and using the Andrade correlation, its predicted viscosity at 5 °C (the operating temperature of the tower head), would approach 56,000 centistokes (mm2/sec). The flow rate of the gear oil is 8 liters per minute at a viscosity of 56,000, corresponding to the average operating temperature at 300 meters, the power required to repressurize the fluid is 600 watts.

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Pressure drop calculation for the piston-cylinder gap. The pressure drop is simply calculated by calculating the cross-sectional area and increasing the length of the pipe until the surface area is equal to the area of the cylinder gap.

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The surface area of the 0.45mm thick gap between the piston and cylinder is 3.8 million square millimeters, equal to a 37-millimeter pipe 32 meters long.

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The above image illustrates the closed cycle oil seal. The piston slides inside a submissive oil bath, there is no mechanical contact between the piston wall and cylinder. The pumps on the side repressurized the oil which has lost all its pressure at the exit of the flow path to the inlet pressure. The flexible partition can be made of a number of plastic materials, alternately a thin wall metal liner can also be used. If the tower is to be installed in a hot climate, an oil cooler can be installed using ammonia refrigeration to keep the oil at no more than 5 degrees even if the outside temperature is 30 °C or more. The power required to bring the temperature of the oil down by 25 °C degrees is only around 1 kilowatt since only 100 kilograms of oil is present.

#5 Thermal-density fluctuation. An obvious drawback of using gas is its change in density with temperature. The change in density affects the total hydrostatic force on the piston. The designer must implement a constant-pressure management system to cope with thermal flux. For the tower at 300m, the temperature lapse will be 3 °C at the top, and the average temperature will be 1.5 degrees. Between minus 30 °C to 40 °C the density of argon decreases from 172 to 118 kg. Of course, the typical diurnal air temperature variation is rarely above 10 °C, so such a wide range is of little relevance. In the Midwest of the U.S, the maximum temperature variation is 11 degrees °C while the average surface temperature is 7 °C minus 4.5 °C adjusted for altitude. This means if the average temperature is 20 °C during the day, the temperature falls to 9 °C. At an 11-degree temperature change, 282 to 293 K, a trifling 5% change in density will occur in the argon. In geography with a much sharper diurnal temperature flux, an internal heater could be required if the insides of the pipe were to be insulated. To raise 4,200 kg of argon gas by 50 °C requires only 18 kilowatts thanks to its low heat capacity. We can conclude safely that thermal fluctuations and their effect on density are negligible. Nitrogen, which has three times the heat capacity, will experience a much smaller change in density, this would suggest its use would be desirable in regions where thermal fluctuation is more severe. Although if nitrogen is used, heating it will require more energy, so it may be more desirable to use argon and simply insulate the insides of the pipes with rock-wool insulation or microporous insulation.

Density tables for argon and nitrogen. At 280 K (4 °C), nitrogen has a density of only 99 kg/m3.

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#6 Power cable selection. At first glance, the transmission cable may seem like a trivial issue, but there is some nuance in conductor selection, including making a balance between voltage drop and cable size and cable size vs temperature. 

Since our turbine is so much higher than most, we must carry considerably more conductors and will encounter greater voltage drop due to the greater resistance. Moreover, standard induction or synchronous motors operate at only 400 volts, which necessitates a heavy ampacity. 

For a 1000 kW 400v synchronous generator operating at 1500-1800 RPM, the current is 2000 amps, which requires four 1000 MCM cables, each rated for about 560 amps at 60 celsius. The voltage drop is approximately 5% or 21 volts, and the hourly heat flux is 5 kWh per cable, raising its temperature by 40 Celsius. The weight of the bare 1000 MCM cable is 0.45 kg/m, or a total of 540 kg. At an aluminum price of $2.8/kg, the cables add $1,500 to the turbine, which is a trivial addition.

In light of all these salient design exigencies, by far the most important design variable is withstanding the static wind loads that occur during a rare gust. The dead weight of the turbine module is relatively insignificant, the 1000 kW 12 m/s turbine built entirely with 4140 steel, aluminum, and high molecular weight polyethylene weighs only 35,000 kg, while the total wind loads on the tower and upper-frame amount to 71,000 kg, translating to a total load on the tower structure of 100,000 kg. The total upward force acting on the piston from the argon gas at 7.5 MPa is 128,000 kg, giving an additional margin of 20,000 kg to deal with unexpected loads. This margin can be increased if more cable mass is acceptable. The wind load on the blades during a maximum wind regime of 55 m/s is assumed to be static, which is equal to a flat plate when the blades are feathered at a zero angle of attack. During the maximum wind regime, the turbine module is pivoted to face the wind head-on. Yang et al 2021 tested a number of steel tubes in a wind tunnel of varying diameters at different velocities and Reynolds numbers and found that a 250mm tube experienced a drag coefficient of 0.39 at 25 m/s at a Reynolds number of 862,000. In reality, the Renyolds nuimber will be much higher since the maximum wind rating for the structure has been set at 67 meters per second or 150 miles per hour. At this velocity with a characteristic linear dimension (surface to volume) of 0.11 meters, the Reynolds number is exactly 450,000, yielding a very low drag coefficient 0.357. 

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Drag is caused by a combination of viscous and internal forces, this is what the widely used Reynolds number attempts to quantify. At high Reynolds numbers, drag is preponderantly internal, that is the kinetic energy of molecules impacting the body, while at low speeds it is caused by the friction or viscous resistance of the fluid passing along the body. At very high speeds, above the speed of sound, air is compressible, this is referred to as pressure drag. For a high altitude structure with a tubular column and cables, on the column, drag force is primarily internal and the flow is extremely turbulent, while on the cables due to the very low linear dimension, the flow is viscous and not highly turbulent. For blunt bodies such as the torsion bracket, flat plate drag can be used or simply the static wind force, which is 278 kg/m2 at 67 m/s. 

A slender body is experiencing friction from the fluid passing over from friction, the fluid impacting it from inertia, as well as the de-pressurization at its back caused by an exhaustion of the fluid’s momentum, which causes the higher pressure in front to push the body into the low-pressure zone behind it. For a cylinder, the static pressure zone is only a small slice of the frontal area. When calculating drag coefficients, a common cause of confusion and miscalculation is the issue of a reference area. The reference area is either calculated as frontal area (planform area or projected area) or wetted area. The use of wetted area is usually used for highly slender bodies, such as a fuselage, while cylinders and blunt bodies are typically calculated using the projected area. This means taking its 2D cross-sectional area, which is slightly under a third of the wetted area. 

After the wind loads have been calculated on the main structural components, we must calculate the drag on our guy cables. The drag coefficient of a 20mm smooth cable is around 1.1 at 30 m/s.

The lateral support cables are only 7 millimeters in diameter and hence only yield a Reynolds number of 7500. According to the data below, a 3/8 inch cable experiences a drag coefficient of just around 1.146 at a Reynolds number of 5600. 

The numbers below are from a report available at the defense technical information center website. The measurements were taken at varying reynolds number (air velocity) and cable diameter as well as angles of attack. If the angle is reduced to 45 degrees, the drag coefficient for a 3/8 hollow woven polyethylene cable drops to around 0.5 at a Reynolds number of 17,000. The drag coefficient drops as cable size increases, since the Reynolds number rises with a lower surface to volume ratio (characteristic length) so the main load retainment cables experiences less drag than the small er diameter pressure column stabilizing cables.

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Each main load-bearing steel wire rope cable is 40mm in diameter, with a characteristic dimension of 0.0099 meters at 67 m/s, and thus has Reynolds number of 43,000, since the cable is at a 55 degree angle of attack, the drag coefficient is approximately 0.7. The drag force is thus 8,000 at the maximum encountered wind speed, or 7% percent of the total load capacity of 112,000 kg. The smaller the diameter of the cable, the greater the share of drag as a fraction of its rated load capacity as the surface to volume decreases. Drag is a linear function of wetted surface area, and drag coefficients increase with smaller diameters and with lower velocities. The drag load on the cables is ultimately transformed into tension which is born by the mooring anchors in the ground, as wind passes over the cables and creations a suction force, the cables want to elongate, placing a tensile load on the ground anchor. Since the wind load can only act in a single direction at a time, the cable that is receiving the wind load from its rear, that is the wind is acting in the direction of its forward tilt attitude, will act to pull on the cable from the ground, placing no load on the tower. The cable that is receiving a frontal wind load acting in the direction opposite to the tilt angle, the static force will act to pull on the cable from top-down, placing a load on the tower first, but which still ultimately born by the anchor, since this load is transferred to the rearward cable as tension which is then transferred to the rearward anchor. Therefore, in the design of the high-altitude guyed pressurized media column (PMC), cable wind load can be assumed to be a uniform load born by the ground structure. The designer must then design the tower to withstand the wind force on the main turbine assembly and hydraulic tube. Rather than using a large rectangular nacelle that generates a huge drag force, a large diameter 200m+ tubular lattice structure can be employed keeping the drag coefficient below 0.5, especially at higher turbulent Reynolds numbers expected to be encountered during the temporary 55 m/s regimes.

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EROI analysis.

There have been claims made by critics of natural energy harvesting systems that try to adduce evidence of a negative EROI. It is conceivable that a very heavy wind turbine, with a 50-meter bulky steel tower, placed in a low wind regime, say 6 meters per second, could have a negative EROI. The power density of a conventional tower turbine in such a low wind regime is going to be quite poor, but even in this abysmal wind regime, the EROI is still going to break even after a few years of operation. A wind turbine is constructed preponderantly of steel, with concrete coming in by mass as the largest construction material. For our turbine, the concrete is used to carry the upward force from the lateral guy cables, while a center pad foundation placed underneath the main hydraulic pipe is used to carry the hydraulic force that places downward force on the pad and distributes it to the soil. Firm clay has a bearing capacity of 5000 PSF, the downward force acting on the end of the pipe is equal to the upward force, equal to the pipe’s diameter. The force in the case of the 550-780 kW turbine is approximately 130 tons, so we need a concrete pad of around 60 sq feet (8 feet in diameter) to bear our load. The pad is 5 feet deep and weighs 20 tons. For the guy cable anchors, we use steel anchors shaped like a satellite dish to use the density of compacted clay to carry the upward load rather than using the shear mass of concrete. So in total, around 50 tons of concrete is used as a conservative estimate. Concrete has an average embodied energy of 1250 kWh/ton, totaling 62,000 kWh for our turbine. Virgin teel is typically assumed to possess around 50 MJ of embodied, or 14 kWh/kg, but since our turbine uses recycled steel, only a tiny fraction of this energy is required since coal is not needed for carbothermal reduction. An electric arc furnace consumes between 150 and 300 kWh to produce a ton of steel from scrap, the minimum energy requirement is 170 kWh to raise the temperature of iron from room temperature to its 1400 C melting point assuming no heat losses. The 1 MW turbine uses around 85 tons of steel, so the embodied energy in the primary metal componentry is 22,500 kWh. The copper windings in the generator can be included as well, but the embodied energy is minimal since the generator only weighs around a ton and most of the copper is procured from scrap. It should be emphasized that for every ton of new wind turbine produced, an old coal powerplant might be decommissioned, since the energy density of coal and high-altitude wind is roughly equal, there is no need for virgin steel production, there exists ample supplies of scrap steel for our needs The fabrication and transportation costs should also be included. In this case, a single 53-foot semi-truck can in two trips the entire turbine assembly to the site. Assuming a travel distance of 1000 miles (overseas manufacturing to a major coastal port), the truck will consume 600 liters each way, so a total of 2250 liters is consumed during two round trips. Diesel fuel has a density of 850 kg/m3, so 1910 kg is combusted releasing 22,900 kWh. The energy needed to compress the nitrogen gas media in the pressure column to 4.5 MPa from atmospheric pressure requires 756 kWh. The energy costs for cutting, welding, and fabricating the blades, gearbox, and ancillary componentry can be estimated to consume an additional 50,000 kWh in electrical energy to power the electrical discharge machines and CNC milling machines. A total of around 4 cubic meters of steel is removed with the CNC mill, the CNC mill removes 500 cubic centimeters of material per minute or 0.03 cubic meters per hour using 15 kW to power its spindle, roughly 2000 kWh is consumed by the CNC mill. The total rough estimate for the embodied energy is 500,000 kWh per 300 meter 1 MW turbine. The turbine’s capacity for this size installation varies from 800 to 1400 kW depending on the exact blade diameter, the 55 meter turbine will conservatively produce about 9,000,000-12,000,000 kWh in a single year, so it becomes immediately obvious claims of a negative EROI are woefully inaccurate, but they may apply to very unsuitable installation conditions. The lifetime EROI if the turbine is 600, which means the 500,000-kilowatt-hours that went into producing the machine generates 150,000,000 kilowatt-hours over a 30-year lifetime excluding gearbox replacement or blade refurbishment.

Working principle of the self-erecting silo

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Now we can turn to the final highlight and core competitive advantage of the pressurized media tower technology besides increased energy yield. This is the ability to perform what is called “self-erection”, whereby the gas tube can be slowly built into place from individual 15-meter sections with a novel underground silo that allows the hydrostatic media to be retained in the tube at any given time while allowing a new tube section to be threaded or locked into place. The core functionality of the self-erection systems derives from the ability of the fluid to generate upward force, thereby acting as a crane. The first tube section is inserted into the underground silo, the end of the tube is then allowed to pass through an opening in the ground module. The bottom of the tube is placed on a special moveable fitting that inserts compressed nitrogen inside the tube. The moveable fitting is raised with four cabled winches until it extends all the way to the maximum retraction point. When the tube reaches its maximum retraction, another one is inserted. To achieve this, the compressed nitrogen must be contained while also allowing the end of the tube to be accessed for connection. In order to facilitate this process, a series of pressure containment mechanisms are fitting on the outside of the tube. When the tube extends beyond the pressure containment module at the top of the underground facility, a pressure containment plate is placed underneath sealing the gas. The main pressure containment module is then purged and opened, allowing another tube to be introduced inside. The module is then sealed around the parameter of the tube. The tube is then filled and sealed from the bottom. After it has been filled, the upper sealing plate is removed allowing the compressed gas inside the previous tube to merge with the gas from the freshly inserted one. On this pressure equilibrium is reached, the tubes can be threaded or locked together sealing off the internal gas. The gas inside the containment module is then purged again and the process repeats. To raise the tower, the piston is allowed to climb along with the tube, by pulling the tube along with the climbing piston, the tower can be raised in a single day, obviating the need for expensive cranes. Since the entire pressure column effectively “suspends” from the piston as cables attached to the piston but do not transfer downward force, if the pressure is increased and or cable tension decreased, the entire module climbs vertically. This is an important fact to highlight, since even if some force is applied to the pressure column from the piston at the top, say the seal failed and there was some friction, the piston could not be compressed or experience any load since it reciprocates at the same frictionless seal at the bottom, that it is an entirely slider connection. Of course, if both seals failed then the tube could experience compression.This article provides a brief overview of the technology, its design exigencies, and its applications, including not only wind power, but pile drivers, novel high elevation structures for human habitation, communication towers, cell, radio etc, and also potentially for stationary gantry cranes. 

What the Hydrostatus turbines offer

Previously energetically prohibitive processes are now possible, such as electrochemical machining becoming cost-competitive with mechanical machining.

While nuclear fission and in theory produce near-free power using advanced designs, the problem is that unlike a wind turbine or solar panel, nuclear technology is inaccessible, highly regulated, and is the subject of intense scrutiny over proliferation concerns. So-called SMRs “small modular reactors” will likely never see the light of day due to their obvious ability to be smuggled, exported, and used to produce plutonium if converted to run on heavy water or cooled by gas such as carbon dioxide which does not absorb neutrons. Any breeder reactor by definition is a plutonium 239 factory. Furthermore, even if the regulatory system approved their sale, they would be multi-hundred million dollar devices out of reach of small businessmen and producers in search of cheap power. With a PMC turbine, a small industrialist can rent a plot of land and install a number of PMC systems and produce power for less than 1 cent per kWh to power his machines and small-scale industries. A reactor is available only to governments or large power institutions, and worst yet, it will likely fall under ITAR regulations which would limit its export, so if you’re a small businessman who wants energy for your factory in Turkey which you used to make car parts to export to Europe, you could not import your reactor and just plop it down with a semi-truck. If you’re a farmer in Nebraska that’s tired of paying for overpriced ammonia, you could buy yourself a PMC and plop it down on your land and have effectively free power for three decades, it isn’t conceivable that that same small or medium-sized farmer can just call up some company online and get your reactor delivered unless humanity suddenly becomes a species of pacifists. In the case of photovoltaics, the situation is undoubtedly better than fission, but not the panacea either. Photovoltaic requires the entirety of the land to be occupied by the panels rendering the land useless for agriculture, and requires the developer to buy the land. In the case of the PMC, only a tiny concrete pad takes up a tiny fraction of the land leaving the rest free to farm. Better yet, from an economic perspective, while the land is usually cheap, with a solar farm, it cannot be leased from its owners since by definition than they have no land left to use productively. Of course, if we are speaking of cheap land in the deserts, then the issue is more infrastructure than land costs, because the land is worth almost nothing. With the wind turbine, since each 1 MW machine generates close to a million dollars a year of ammonia in an 8.5 m/s regime (reference height of 50 meters), the operator can pay the farmer a handsome some to use his land, in fact, the farmer would make more money leasing to PMC owners than he could be growing corn or soybeans. Lastly, all it would take, knowing human irrationality and our inability to gauge risk, is one accident that leaves twenty people crispy fried from gamma rays and it would be the end of that. Unlike a steam turbine that occasionally blows up killing a single worker, a nuclear meltdown has a number of unique attributes that potentiate its scare factor, one of them being the silent killer that is gamma rays and the ability for isotopes of strontium 90, cesium 137, polonium 210, etc. The worst that can happen with a wind turbine is it collapses and kills a cow. Furthermore, even though the power density of a fission reactor is immensely high and the cast of the basic metal and raw materials to construct it forms a relatively small overall component, once the device has to be certified and approved by governments, it becomes a technology that is effectively a monopoly produced only by the manufacturer that has been given the stamp approval, much like overpriced aircraft parts. This means that even with further innovation, and small modular PWR will not offer a competitive LCOE, and if fission ends up being more expensive than photovoltaic, so why on earth would anyone bother with the complexity and tediousness of fuel disposal when they can go Alibaba and buy a solar panel let alone a PMC turbine?

The principle limitation of fission is the low utilization of uranium. Breeding has proven technically almost insurmountable, high neutron fluxes and a positive void coefficient make breeders inherently meltdown prone, the need for sodium coolant imposes severe corrosive stresses and the risk of stress corrosion cracking, not to mention neutron embrittlement being amplified by the much higher neutron flux. The heat produced from the fission of 1 kg of 3.5% enriched U-235 is 3,400,000 MJ/kg (on a U-238 basis), or 940 MWh/kg. 4000 tons a year would be consumed to power the U.S, if the world joined in, 26,000 global tons per year would be burned and need to be stored in fuel disposal units. The 3.5 million tons of extractable uranium would be burned in less than 135 years to produce all the world’s energy, meaning that the reserves of coal exceed that of fissionable uranium. Seawater extraction would be nearly impossible because the concentration would begin to fall exponentially, rendering the process impossible within a few decades. In short, unless breeding technology can be made reliable, it is unlikely fission will be the panacea that proponents claim.

Aside from enabling previously economically impossible technologies, a number of industrial processes can be linked directly to the wind module site in high wind speed geographies and draw the variable but near free power from the high altitude turbine. Since we want to construct these harvesting machines in regions with high-velocity winds, we must be able to transport cost-effectively the produced energetically embodied substance. If we locate the turbine in Santa Cruz Province of Argentina, we can cheaply transport the product a short distance by truck to a small port to load an ocean-going vessel to transport the valuable product to centers of consumption. No power grid in the world can connect the vast wind potential of Southern Argentina to consumption centers other than ammonia. But rather than building expensive centralized ammonia plants, modularized plants mass-produced in factories and stacked to form a large unit can be installed for a tiny fraction of the cost of present-day systems. A number of industrial processes can be modularized and integrated with PMCs allowing for very cheap silicon reduction, magnesium from seawater, the comminution of very low-grade ore, aluminum electrolysis, salt electrolysis (Chlor alkali, allowing for cheap hydrazine), and very inexpensive hydrogen that can be used for ammonia production, as fuel directly, or for CO2 free iron oxide reduction. The Levelized Cost of energy from a tower-mounted high-efficiency wind turbine would be approximately 0.075 cents per kWh over a thirty-year life for direct system amortization. Including 7-year gearbox replacement, an additional 0.0075 cents are added. The blades constructed from high-strength steel can easily last the fiberglass benchmark of 20 years since their stress amplitudes are far below the stresses needed to cause early fatigue failure, usually multiple hundreds of megapascals. The gearbox is the only component that has to be replaced frequently, since we use magnetic bearings which have infinite life, the main shaft bearing replacement is redundant. 

Icing

Icing is a concern for wind turbines that operate in very frigid climates. Hydrostatus Systems plans on leasing land for sheep farmers in Argentina to install its wind turbine and use them to export ammonia to Europe by medium-sized low-speed hydrogen turbine propelled vessels. Rio Gallegos and most of the arid plains of Southern Argentina in the Santa Cruz province and Magellan territory are very dry, with only 250 millimeters of annual precipitation. The average temperature in Rio Gallegos is 8 degrees, and since our turbine is 200 meters taller than normal turbines, we can subtract 1.2 degrees for the average lapse rate of 6 C/1000m, the air around our turbine is 1.2 degrees cooler than a standard 100-meter turbine. Most of the coastal portion of the Santa Cruz province is classified as a class 1 ice zone, which means the power loss to icing-induced aerodynamic drag is 0 to 0.5% of gross power output. The IEA divides up the different icing conditions into five zones from increasing to decreasing icing concentration in air, most of Nebraska is located in the class 2 zone, which estimates a power loss of 2.5%. In colder regions, class 3 imposes a loss of up to 7.5% of annual power, blade heating can be employed. If the frontal surface of the blade is heated using resistive heating (running high amp DC through the steel surface), the convective heat transfer from the cold air blowing at 12 or more meters per second is around 731 watts per square meter if the surface is held to 10 degrees and the air is minus fifteen. Conventional fiberglass blades are incapable of using resistive heating due to fiberglass’s low thermal conductivity, another major advantage of high-strength vacuum melted steel blades. Using the Boltzmann constant, we can estimate the radiative heat flux, which for a ten-degree body, is equal to 365 watts per square meter, placing our total heat flux to the surrounding air is 1100 watts. Conductive heat transfer would be negligible, since air is an insulator. Since our PMC turbine produces electrical energy to drive a modularized ammonia plant, an excess heat of nearly 350 kWh from the formation of the NH3 product combined with the excess heat of compressing hydrogen gas to 300 bar generates a total of 450-500 kWh of 300-degree heat that can be pumped into the blades in very frigid climates to minimize power losses, allowing 22 square meters of blade area to be heated, roughly enough to cover most of the leading edge plus a small area behind the leading edge. This would allow the turbine to operate in cold climates without excessive energetic penalties.

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IEA ice class map, note that the regions in which we propose installing the PMC fall in class 1 to 2, which less than 2.5% annual losses to icing.

Manufacturability

Hydrostatus Systems adhering to its novel design philosophy of “concatenated built- up component manufacturing (CBUM)” has designed an improved manufacturing speed gear construction method. Rather than forging an entire gear wheel, sections of gear face are connected together to a wheel blank containing no gear patterns but merely holding the gear faces, much like a turbine wheel. This saves dramatically on manufacturing costs since a hobbing machine is made obsolete and since the gear face section only contains a small number of gear teeth, a five-axis machine is not needed. This design is employed only for the planet gear, which due to the need to minimize force on the teeth, features a large 950mm diameter, the sun gears are made from a single shaft and are only 20 centimeters in diameter. Rather than grinding away at the gear which is a very slow process, a high-speed carbide bit can machine the involute teeth by making multiple straight passed front and back, removing up to 200 cm3 in a minute. Compared to gear grinding, which takes multiple hours, the gears can be CNC machined prior to hardening in less than an hour. Since gear steel has a higher cobalt and molybdenum content its price is usually over $1000 per ton. It should be noted that the low LCOE of this turbine is not only a function of the increased wind speed, it is also due to the nature of the manufacturing of the turbine. The turbine is not inordinately bulky and large and hence difficult to manufacture, in fact, the nature of the design is highly conducive to CBUM, where mass-produced and relatively small components make up the bulk of the superstructure. Using a first-principles method, the major components are designed from a manufacturability perspective and then analyzed to see if the performance is comparable to comparable non-manufacturability-centric design philosophy. If the component has similar performance, but is even slighter inferior in longevity, but is much cheaper to produce, it is a superior option. For example, since forging equipment occupies a large footprint, there is an additional cost for real estate. Even in countries with very low wages, such as India, industrial real estate is very expensive, the ability to manufacture a relatively large system using a small amount of space is highly advantageous. Additionally, forging requires multiple workers to manipulate the forging specimen simultaneously. Conventional wind turbine hubs are forged in high-wage countries like Spain or Germany. A far superior method is to break the hub down into multiple concatenated sections and machine each section with a ubiquitous four-axis CNC machine, where one worker can supervise ten machines at a time. The cost is dramatically reduced, even though the strength may not be as high as a forged specimen, it is more than satisfactory, especially considering the average load on the hub is only a few megapascals. The hub is made up of six machined sections only 130 centimeters long, which can be easily machined with a moderately sized gantry CNC which cost $125-200k, compared to millions for corresponding forging presses. The individual hub components are mechanically fastened together to form a single component. The hub material need only be low hardness steel, in the HRC 25-30 range, easily handled by standard carbide cutting tools. If high hardness parts a needing, quenching is performed after machining. A CNC machine is much cheaper, easier to maintain, and footprint friendly than a forging apparatus, not to mention nearly entirely labor free. Forging is relatively rapid as far as material penetration and shaping, but it’s a very rough process and cannot produce a useable final product. Since machining is less labor intensive, and machining is almost as fast, the cost can often fall under that of forging, especially for very large components where costs escalate beyond a linear relationship with volume. The only labor required is for tool piece replacement, specimen position, and securement, which can be performed on each machine during each startup shutdown interval allowing each worker to handle multiple machines. Forging is not amenable to automation, whereas machining is very much so.

Firstly, the bulky large diameter cold rolled tubular towers are dispensed with, saving a large alone. Secondly, high payloads cranes are no longer needed. While cranes themselves are relatively cheap, the need to transport them to rural sites where wind turbines often find themselves is not, moreover, cranes have very slow turnaround times due to the need to assemble them into place since they are too large to transport. Thirdly, the use of machined and adhesively bonded steel blades saves cost by dramatically reducing the labor intensity of blade manufacturing from fiberglass. The fatigue strength of high-strength steels such as SCM440 or 4140 is equally as good as the resin in a fiberglass blade. People often mistakenly assume fiberglass and other resin-reinforced fibers possess infinite or near infinite fatigue life. While the classic concept o the fatigue limit or “endurance” has been shown not to be valid by the late Claude Bathias, steel still nonetheless possesses extraordinary fatigue properties, making things such as railway axles that last for decades possible and incur 10^9 cycles during their life. While the fatigue limit has been disproved, high-strength steels, albeit small specimens tested under piezoelectric high-frequency fatigue testing machines, have been shown to survive to over 10^9, 10^10 at stress amplitudes of up to 600 MPa, and some even insane numbers like 10^11 cycles at stresses amplitudes as high as 500 MPa! It is interesting to note that while low cycle fatigue is usually manifested by surface cracks, high cycle or ‘gigacycle” fatigue is primarily an internal cracking phenomenon caused by imperfections and foreign contaminants.

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A wind turbine will experience a rotational inertial stress amplitude as the blades rotate from horizontal to vertical planes exactly at the frequency of rotation. One must remember there is no “centrifugal force” pulling the blade out from the hub, there is only inertia tangential to the angle of rotation. As the blade spins, it possesses a certain amount of kinetic energy, and this energy wants to push the blade clockwise in the plane of rotation, causing a bending moment at the midpoint, not at the root. This rotational inertial stress amplitude is only 12 MPa for 25 rotations per minute, the stress amplitude is a function of speed, the fast the speed, the higher the inertia on the blade. The second stress amplitude emanates from cyclical wind loads, but this is a very low-frequency phenomenon, since wind speeds vary only across relatively extended time frames, not anywhere to hertz levels. The third loading regime is the wind lift-induced torque and subsequent blade root bending. A wind turbine blade for a 55-meter turbine generating 1000 kW will have about 500 sq ft over-wing area, at a lift coefficient of 1.5 and a free stream velocity of 12 meters per second, the blade will generate 1500 lbs of force across the entire blade. Note the relative velocity, the speed at which the blades spin through the air medium is much greater than the incoming air velocity, but the direction of this speed would not be in the lift line of the airfoil, otherwise, a wind turbine would like a helicopter rotor, with the plane of rotation in the same axis as the wind direction. The force bends the blade up from generated stress on the root, but this load is not a cyclical load but a largely high amplitude low-frequency load, since the lift is constant as the blade rotates around its axis. When the turbine accelerates and decelerates due to changes in wind velocity, there is stress amplitude generated. For example, if the turbine is spinning at 10 RPM during a slow wind regime, but a sudden gust doubles the wind speed to accelerate it to 25 rpm in only 5 seconds (this would be unprecedented acceleration for a wind turbine since the torque of the motors slows it down), a stress amplitude of 56 MPa is generated at the midsection of the wing spar. The total number of loading cycles for a 30-year blade would be 400 million, far below the fatigue failure of high-strength steel. The greatest stress on wind turbine blades is not found when the turbine is operating routinely, but rather from rare gusts that catch the blades when they are facing the wind at a 90-degree angle from the lift plane, that is flat plate in front of the wind. When the blades are facing the wind, their drag coefficient is very low generating a small bending force. This loading regime, unlike the normative ones, can generate hundreds of MPa of stress, while the ordinary loads can only generate a few tens of MPa, thankfully, their occurrence is remote. Of course, the fatigue numbers derived from gigacycle regime testing of small specimens cannot be extrapolated confidently to large heterogeneous members like a wing spar, since by definition fatigue cracks, both internal or external, are caused by defects in the grain structure, either inclusions of non-metallic components or pores, these defects occur at a specific frequency as a function of volume, hence larger parts will fail earlier. This should suggest small systems would be more reliable than larger ones. Most commercial glass fiber resins perform no better than strong steels. Since steel is so much stiffer and stronger than fiberglass, the mass of the blades are no higher than fiberglass. And even if their fatigue life is slightly lower, it would have no impact on the operating cost of the unit since the steel blades are so much cheaper to the manufacturer.

High altitude ultra-low-cost wind opens up the opportunity to make electrochemical machining a cost-competitive option for very hard metals. Electrochemical machining at 12 volts uses around 7.2 kW per cm3/min. Since a conventional carbide face mill can remove 500 cm3 per minute, the equivalent high volume electrochemical mill would draw 3600 kWh, at a cost of 1 cent from hydropower, the power costs are only 36 per hour, comparable to a CNC machine running in a first world country with an operator being made $20/hr. The downside of electrochemical milling is the large pumping and filtration system required to remove the metal particles and recycle the electrolyte, usually salt or sodium nitrate. The second major disadvantage is the high amperage, since the voltage is below 15 volts but the power requirements are so, one can imagine the need for a massive DC power supply. The cost of a full bridge rectifier power supply is usually around $20-30/kW, for a 3500 kW device at 150 amps/cm2, $105,000 worth of 80 amp 12-volt power supplies are needed, far more than the equivalent cost of a spindle, linear ball actuator, and gantry frame.

The wind turbine industry is one of the largest single power generation sectors, exceeding the size of the individual thermal generation sectors including Brayton and Rankine. The global wind turbine market was valued at 55 billion as of 2020, as big as the photovoltaic and even bigger than the global gas turbine market, which was valued at 22 billion, steam turbines at 16 billion, diesel generators, 20 billion, and nuclear fission at 38 billion. This is an impressive feat for a sector that did not even exist on the radar as early as the 1990s. By 2030, the wind sector is projected to grow to over 100 billion.
With a new radically improved tower technology, that increases the annual yield for a single turbine by a factor of 3, the industry will grow to new heights. It is not unreasonable to expect a majority of turbines to use the technology where suitable. There may be certain areas where the presence of stay cables is absolutely unacceptable, say next to an air force base where military jets frequently train. It should be noted that just like on communication towers, the cables can be fitted with high visibility lights to minimize the risk of collision. It would also be advisable for large wind farms equipped with these turbines to be marked on the airspace. For the majority of cases, the presence of guy cables or lack thereof, makes little difference, since the wind turbine blades already occupy the airspace to begin with, and collisions can happen with blades and towers, since the guy cables are equally visible thanks to the use of bright LED lights. As wind turbines are noisy and often perceived as an aesthetic nuisance, they are rarely approved in suburban or urban sites. Barely 2% of all U.S land is occupied by human beings in what is defined as “urban”, leaving the rest as pasture, natural parks, government land, forest, and of course agriculture. In Europe, wind energy is often more evocative of the ocean, but even in Europe, the majority of turbines are still installed in rural pastures, where the only living creatures to bother are bovines.

Of course, in the “real world”, not everything looks as good as on paper or on the simulation program, but with man’s present knowledge of materials, friction, aerodynamics, corrosion, and pressure, it’s quite possible to arrive at a high fidelity estimate of real-world performance entirely on paper. There is a common but flawed notion that one has to “build a prototype” before making any claims, and that it “looks good on paper but we don’t know until it’s tested”. There is a fundamental flaw with this stance. Firstly, it presupposes an inability to analyze at a purely analytical stage whether the working principle or enabling concept is able to function as intended based on the design assumption. This would entail as a precondition a lack of conceptual understanding, but we do not find ourselves limited by this problem. To require testing or prototyping is only necessary when the process of anticipatory analysis simply cannot be certain to parallel in the real world, this would only be the case if materials were used whose properties were not yet fully understood, or mechanisms employed whose dynamical operation is far from certain. There are many cases in engineering, such as dam construction, calculations have to be relied upon and material behavior must conform to expectations, because a dam cannot by definition be “tested” or “prototyped” in its full scale and scope prior to its installation. Once installed, testing is useless since by definition since the system will perform the way it will perform irrespective of testing! Rocket launches are a similar case study, since these are instances where testing to see how the system behaviors in its entirety are not possible without putting the system into actual use. The Saturn V’s first launch, 53 years ago, all with the multiplicity of stage decoupling, turbopump bearings, or fuselage structural dynamics, could not be “simulated” with 100% accuracy before it was tested in real life, and this testing meant assuming either success of catastrophic failure with a human toll, meaning all the estimates made by its designers had to be correct. The calculations made in this technology proposal are to the highest fidelity achievable using the knowledge of contemporary literature, there will always be things learned in the field that separate prediction from reality, but these differences will not exceed an acceptable margin. There are many technologies where confident prediction is close to impossible, such as chemistry or metallurgy, it would be arrogant for a drug developer to predict with any high degree of accuracy how a drug will perform until it is tested first in animals and then in humans. In the case of metallurgy, it would not be advisable to make business decisions on a purely theoretical alloy until it has been tested in the real world. But this is neither a drug nor an alloy, this is a working principle, just like any simple mechanism and array of technological methods in practice, it functions at a theoretical level, in the same manner, it functions in physical actuality. The technology does not make use of exotic materials, mechanisms, or electronics, it is made of earth-abundant materials fabricated with century-old methods. It makes use of principles (hydrostatic force) understood by man since the days of Archimedes and Vitruvius, over two thousand years ago. It makes use of materials whose properties can be easily estimated from accumulated experience, the behavior of steel under pressure is easily simulated, and the elongation of a wire rope as well. In summary, there is nothing preventing its deployment but a lack of vision, imagination, and intelligence, there is only the age-old incorrigible human stubbornness, aversion to change, our religious nature, and fear of novelty that stand in the way of this technology or any other truly novel invention. There exists another pernicious factor vested interests and arrogant industry executives that feel jealous that the real and useful innovations did not come from them or their coterie.

[1] http://www.jensgpohl.com/technicalpapersframe_pfibs-2.html

[2] https://patents.google.com/patent/US20090260301

[3] https://patents.google.com/patent/US4685253A/en?oq=+4685253

[4] https://patents.google.com/patent/US3796017

[5] https://www.google.com/books/edition/Project_Independence_Denver_Colorado_Aug/AMdPAAAAYAAJ?hl=en&gbpv=1&dq=1000+foot+wind+turbine+tower&pg=PA138&printsec=frontcover

[6] https://patents.google.com/patent/US2738039A/en

[7] https://patents.google.com/patent/US8245449B2/en?inventor=Jack+G.+Bitterly&page=1

[8] https://patents.google.com/patent/US20090072426A1/en?inventor=Jack+G.+Bitterly&page=1

[9] https://patents.google.com/patent/US20110047886A1/en?inventor=Jack+G.+Bitterly&page=1

[10] https://patents.google.com/patent/US7232103B2/en?inventor=Jack+G.+Bitterly&page=1

[11] https://patents.google.com/patent/US5555678A/en?inventor=Jack+G.+Bitterly&page=1

[12] https://www.researchgate.net/publication/354270120_Experimental_Study_on_Drag_Coefficients_and_Shielding_Effects_of_Steel_Tubular_Members_in_Lattice_Transmission_Towers?enrichId=rgreq-e941d38c0bda7599dac615fd98399fac-XXX&enrichSource=Y292ZXJQYWdlOzM1NDI3MDEyMDtBUzoxMDY4MTE2OTM5Mzc0NTkzQDE2MzE2NzAzMzEzODE%3D&el=1_x_3&_esc=publicationCoverPdf

[13] https://www.carbonsteel-wire.com/

[14] https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/full/10.1177/0096340212459124

[15] https://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/1-Metal-And-Concrete-Inputs-For-Several-Nuclear-Peterson-Zhao/519ea5c55a312f3f45ccfcc4a093a941366c6658

[16] https://link.springer.com/book/10.1007/978-3-642-50151-7

[18] https://globalwindatlas.info/

[17] https://apps.dtic.mil/sti/citations/ADA048263

[19] https://apps.dtic.mil/sti/citations/AD0754889

[20] https://patents.google.com/patent/CN85205373U/en?q=Flexible+leakless+hydraulic+cylinder&oq=Flexible+leakless+hydraulic+cylinder

[21] https://patents.google.com/patent/US9212828B2/en

[22] https://www.scirp.org/journal/paperinformation.aspx?paperid=92529

[23] https://link.springer.com/book/10.1007/978-1-940033-39-6

[24] https://en.wind-turbine-models.com/turbines/69-enercon-e-70-e4-2.300

[25] https://patents.google.com/patent/US6099797

[26] https://patents.google.com/patent/EP1433868A1/en

Chinese translation: Note, it is obviously translated using Google translate, which is a non-sentient computer.

自立式无吊静水悬浮塔技术 用于风 涡轮机和手机信号塔 力 国家。 整个现代工业文明都建立在 碳氢化合物, 油仅占一小部分。 在所有 高热 输入的持续流动, 量 没有它, 没有现代 地壳中的卡 释放化合物, 路里 其 100% 以 力消除屈曲 在可用于目前钻井技术的深度处, 热 极其微弱。 量 这 前言: 能源是迄今为止最有价值的资产, 仅次于人 资本 力 高度集中的能 主要以气态和固态的形式存在 量 集中的能 ,量 地球上可用的大部分能 都是分散的 量 克 斯托夫 里 · 波查里 使用非欧拉柱方法实现无与伦比的结构效率 形成, 作为下游太阳能高度分散在其表面。 这 使用静液压提高高空拉线塔的负载能力 来自衰变放射性同位素和残余地幔的热 的热 值 量 量 技术社会可以维持自己的生命 止几个月。 不 碳和氢,

而每千瓦的镍含 是微 足 量 不 道的, 蒸汽轮机将使用 涡轮机售价 250,000-300,000 美元。 这些中型凝汽式涡轮机 情况, 但主要是电 需力 求的增长。 很遗憾 每千瓦的稀有金属比风 涡轮机还要 力 多。 煤的平均热量 每千瓦时消耗 15 公斤蒸汽。 进口压 为 力 2.1 MPa, 进口 到目前为止, 动力装置约为 300 美元。 蒸汽轮机可以预期最后 功率密度低得多, 因此材 强料 更度 大。 蒸汽 没有膨胀零售的“绒毛因素” 的世界批发市场价格 涡轮机的高压叶片必须由镍合金制成, 并且 西方价格。 Dongturbo Electric Ltd 零售 1000 kW 冷凝蒸汽 当这些系统被考虑在内时, 可以额外增加一分半 涡轮机的效率低于 30%, 除非处于超临界级别, 其中 不包括同步发电机的成本, 因为蒸汽需要 资本支出成为一个越来越重要的因素。 此外, 成本 添加。 汽轮机价格估算可从网上获取 同步发电机也是如此。 1000 千瓦煤的每千瓦成本 蒸汽轮机和锅炉的 pr kW 远高于燃气轮机, 因为它的 对于煤, 不能利用高效的布雷顿和柴油循环, 值为 32 MJ/kg, 8.86 kWh/kg。 150 美元/吨, Levelized 一代 像阿 巴巴 里 这样的市场, 这通常是对真实的非常准确的估计 温度为 300 摄氏度。 随之而来的燃煤锅炉的资本支出为 留下边际效率的兰金循环作为唯一的选择。 大多数蒸汽 因此, 不包括锅炉、 涡轮机和冷凝器资本支出的成本为 5.6 美分。 大约 50,000 美元。 由于我们正在与风 涡轮机 力 行进 比较, 因此我们可以 有人成功推翻了热力 律 学第一或第二定 , 伙计 小, 彻底改变我们所知的文明, 有效地摧毁 250,000 小时, 但实际摊销是 150,000 小时之前的主要 被迫用他的各种玩意 知不 疲倦地捡拾收获 整个热能以及非热能领域, 迎来一个 印度等面临电 需力 力 力 求压 的国家的电 需求 没有证据表明第 3 方原型最终证明有用 为城市空调提供不 力 断增长的动 。 总之, 直到 从平衡开始工作。 既然希恩的发现有机会, 虽然 对最先进的热烃的简要分析的结论 达 到这个热 值, 不 量 就 得不 不降低生活水平 真正的第二次违法 为行 很低, 忽略它是失职的。 发电厂建议每千瓦时 5 到 6 美分的下限是可以实现的。 公认。 圣地亚哥的丹尼尔· 希恩(Daniel Sheehan) 声称有能 生成 力 希恩的麦克斯韦僵尸, 事实还是虚构? 在可预见的未来, 煤炭不太可能跌破每吨 150 美元, 因为 需要大修。 使用这个数字, 额外的 0.2 美分可以忽略不计 每一种卡路里 料 排放材 的生物圈。 作为文明 热平衡产生的热 ,量 但由于这篇论文是在 2019 年撰写的, 因此 史无前例的地缘政治动荡时期导致石油和 每千瓦时增加, 突出显示 LCOE 的燃料 不 份额 成比例。 这 前进和扩散, 对热值的需求强烈增加, 如果 中东的天然气收入, 即使我们得出他发现的可能性 不会是聪明的生物, 而是笨拙的野兽。 而 是不 功能。 事后看来, 希恩的提议是天才, 也许我们应该 合乎逻辑地假设人类最后的真正发明之一是 处理 量 关于轨迹的大 信息 没有考虑它而感到愚蠢。 也许我们可以向自己保证这是 点, 即钨和铼。 该设备工作在一个强大的 第 2 条法 。律 在 1990 年代后期, Daniel Sheehan 提出了一种新的 分子之间有足够的间隙, 碰撞会迅速发生, 导致 麦克斯韦恶魔, 但不是恶魔, 而是僵尸。 它 平衡。 这需要一个真空来维持系统 空气分子的速度约为每秒 500 米。 无论是 蛮力, 它将防止分子相互碰撞, 单热体。 希恩的僵尸利用金属催化剂,

通过卡西米尔效应假设的零点真空辐射, 迫使不平衡表现出来。 这是至关重要的, 也是唯一为什么 由难熔金属组成, 具有极高熔点的金属 或者通过以一种避免 将涉及从 周围的分子, 它将执行 更 一个 平庸的任务, 即利用 可以在开始时实现温差, 而无需保持 热力学机构的错误是禁止我们 热平衡, 即来自我们周围环境的能 ,量 自由 在一个封闭的系统中, 无需收集信息, 通过使用 违反神圣原则, 工作永远不能从一个 (吸收能 )量 比钨, 所以它会加强反应和 就像一个在真空中高速旋转的飞轮, 它看起来好像是一个 在密闭室内真空, 将氢气引入真空中 相对于执行重组的钨(其中 永动机实际上并没有失去任何速度 不够学术, 无法花时间思考如何解决问题 原子和双原子氢在其表面上的吸收和解吸。 在 300 K 时, 需要 400 kJ 才能打破氢键, 因此推测, 在 铼解离双原子氢的效率是其四倍 热密封室, 这种热 几乎可以无 量 限期地保存。 并在温度降低或存在 反应器最初被加热, 然后在稳定状态下运行 二极管。 在耗电的数据中心时代, 杰夫很难相信 诱导重组的催化剂。 这个僵尸工作的关键是 隔热, 有足够的初始能量 料 被困在隔热材 中 Bezos 不会大声敲他的门, 当然, 除非 Jeff Bezos 微调不同的催化剂以实现足够强的差异 并加热到 1500 K。 自 1900 年代初以来, 人们就知道氢, 释放能 )。 量 如果将热机或热电发电机放置在 反应器以维持分裂双原子氢的活化能。 摩擦, 最初的能 输入将 量 永远显现, 直到它被耗尽 双原子分子, 将在升高的温度下解离, 大约 1900 K 反应堆, 吸收热 会量 停止反应吗? 如果热 是量 从 生产工作。 这将是希恩的表催化的主要关注点 在失控的碳氢化合物需求和随之而来的下游之间 稳定。 海平面是一个潜在的问题, 但没有严重的理由 第 2 条法 。律 看起来像开尔文、 克劳修斯和普朗克一样坚定, 只要 燃烧产生的回响开始被广泛感受到。 不是 目前担心海平面, 但有一个超过可以接受的 在过去的半个世纪中迅速发展, 而在最近的 在那之前, 让我们继续讨论风 涡轮机和能源 力 等效日晒一直备受争议, 但将 困境。 21 世纪可以说是一场完美的风暴 预计它会增加蒸发强度, 这可能会破坏宏观气候 来自地球的能 。量 如果希恩是正确的, 那么我们就要退休了 (三氧化二氮)。 更糟糕的是, 二氧化碳分子在 4 工业革命时代, 但这 是不 应该预测的, 如果 在剩下的时间 冲浪 里 , 因为没有什么可做的了,

至少对我们来说 和 20 纳米范围, 并可能导致额外的辐射强迫或 温室气体理论是正确的, 因为温室气体排放量增加了 能源事业, 能源将免费, 乌托邦已经到来。 像我们一样, 我们在做生意, 人类将越来越大 仅由于它们的燃烧会释放出氮氧化合物, 它们会发生反应 等效日照为每平方米 1.5 瓦。 这种增加在 由于所谓的“门槛”, 它可能会在不久的将来加速 更 量 力 精细的装置来挤压每一个热 和动 分子 与挥发性有机化合物、 异戊二烯、 萜烯, 并形成臭氧 影响”。 海平面上升一直保持非常稳定 随着风与地球的接触, 速度迅速衰减 通过资源和大气/气候问题的结合, 但它 中国工业化。 无论如何, 无论 GHS 排放是否与 地表, 通常在高处只留下相对较慢的风速 应保持平衡和头脑清醒。 事实是碳氢化合物是 为了提供最丰富的天然能源之一, 稀释 强调: 压力梯度形式的太阳能: 风。 不幸的是, 风 #1: 应该激发开发碳氢化合物替代品的动力 鉴于这些不必要的陈述条件, 现代文明需要一个 CO2 浓度), 由生长引起的表面粗糙度增加 通过它们的燃烧强加, 通过弱温室的组合 许多新的选择来替代过去的能源。 为了提供 灌木和树木导致风速在靠近地表时衰减, 但 气体, 例如二氧化碳, 以及 强更 的温室气体, 一氧化二氮, 这种消耗和无外部性的能源, 我们已经确定了一种方法 正如某些气候模型所预测的那样是灾难性的, 值得对冲 与现存的风 涡轮机有 力 关。 另一个相当发人深省的因素是 不 更在 高的大气层中。 我们认为重要的几点 自然会变得越来越稀缺和昂贵, 并且有足够的时间, 将 通过使用无碳氢化合物的能源, 未来文明生活的可 性。 行 在 全球绿化导致的风速减弱(上升的必然结果) 耗尽。 但忽视负面外部性也是失职 业绩和财务可 性, 行 发展 应该 更 基于 非“硬” 指标的社会吸引力。 换句话说, 我们不应该 和甲烷, 碳氢化合物的持续燃烧可能令人遗憾 市场力量和社会关切的结合应该迫使 开发 如碳氢化合物有效的技术, 不 除非它们 文明的人, 这个方向是朝着永远崇高的形式, 更强大 频带。 能源发展不一定要被驱动 清洁度优于当代碳氢化合物技术。 如果这些属性 完全由政策单独, 这可能无法执行必要的选择 没有得到满足, 他们的部署没有理由, 无论他们的 度, 但对于 CO2 的确切敏感性仍有争议 优待。 技术应该成功并基于 与热能技术相比, 一次能源发电。 这 分子, 因为与具有宽吸收带的甲烷 同, 不 只有 CO2 它的内在属性, 而这些属性应该部分暗示一种与生俱来的 技术的箭头在历史上指向了一个方向 吸收 4 和 20 纳米范围内的红外线, 对其余部分不透明 并损害大气候的稳定性。 碳倍增 采用更 力 具竞争 的技术。 风能, 或任何替代品 优势, 无论是在成本效益或寿命, 或环境 具有弥补其相对 足的其他 不 属性。 我们是 理论上二氧化硫会使全球气温升高约一倍半 能源技术, 必须自 成行 功, 无需补贴、 推广或 使论点高空地风是一种优越的形式 #3: 我们必须愿意在当前偏离设计教条 其次取决于国家, 风 涡轮机将在没有 力 形式, 以及 密更 更 集和 广泛的形式。 技术很少退步 工业, 例如强调使用玻璃纤维而 是不 金属刀片, 整流器一个可变频率的交流波形 使用 不 双重 然而, 地质冶金和加工限制限制了 使用根据时间需求节流的可变输出热机 所有人类技术的可扩展性, 并对可回收性设置上限 条件。 交流电网需要 50 或 60 个周期的恒定频率 术语“自然能量收集”, 因为没有任何技术是可再生的 任何要并入电网的痉挛源。 今天 我们可以满足交流电网施加的这些严格要求, 我们应该 对这个词的严格定义。 虽然钢和铜是真的 电网设计用于可变但预定可控的 用在风 发力 电机上, 理论上可以无限循环利用, 还有 倒退了, 这样的情况就非常可悲了。 或使用多兆瓦规模, 而 是高 不 密度的子 电流的流动。 电流仅在所谓的“基本负载” 之上进行调制 馈电感应驱动器。 当涡轮机产生的电流超过 #2: 应放弃“可再生能源” 一词, 并用“可再生能源” 一词代替 兆瓦涡轮机。 #4: 我们必须停止徒劳地试图强迫风能或 被电网消耗, 能量被分流并永远丢失。 因为 太可能 不 可变功率, 而电网努力吸收等时电流 伽玛 60 等。 从风中获取能 是 量不 寻找其他选择。 而 是不 强制电网整合, 这些痉挛 庞大的存储库和/或稳定性问题。 节省的每一焦耳能量 如果设计得当, 如果地 是理 DTU, 从这张地图来看, 很明显完全没有必要打扰 使用电弧和许多其他电 密力 集型或氢密集型 自那时以来, 收获技术几乎完全没有变化 过程。 这些过程的 同不 力 之处在于它们吸收的能 德国 Growian、 美国 MOD 系列、 丹麦 Nibe A 和意大利 通过生产碳氢化合物密集型化学品消耗碳氢化合物, 任何痉挛性能 来源都是其产生可 量 储存、 充满活力 力 的能 其次, 仅陆上可利用的面积比世界能源总量还多 例如用于氨、 甲醇生产、 加氢裂化、 苛性碱的氢气 有利于运输和储存和按需使用的化合物 消费倍增。 地图来自优秀的“全球风图集” 苏打水、 铝、 电镀、 钛生产和钢铁回收 风源应部署在具有一定程度可变性的地方 避免在这些部门消耗碳氢化合物是更多的可用能源 热值的可逆性。 介绍和动机: Wind 赞赏, 如果电网连接和频率调制被规避, 其他地方, 或减少排放。 提供的关键竞争优势 更 易容 忍受。 例如, 痉挛可用于切断当前 优化结构效率。 海拔 10 米以上 安装比有合适的浅水, 水域的总面积 技术使昂贵的海上安装变得多余和过时。 在腐蚀性的海洋中建造涡轮机, 并附带所有的基础, 深度小于 100 米的地方, 这是实际的极限 1970 年代的石油危机促使世界先进国家 帮助扼杀了 1950 年代做出的大部分庞格罗西式的预测。 尽可能让自己屈服于大自然海洋的凶猛 在农场操作, 因为它们的间距相距很远, 可以收割 确保土地安全。 事实上, 有更多的土地可用于涡轮机 车辆自由通过。 高海拔地面自立式涡轮机 毕竟, 海上风电的整个想法是利用高速 与传统的风 涡轮机 同, 力 不 几乎 会占用 不 宝贵的农田, 因为 光伏。 这是在人们对核能的幻想日益破灭之际 政权, 但是因为我们可以通过简单地在陆地上获得相同的速度 塔底非常狭窄, 筒仓完全位于地下。 裂变, 日益增长的环境担忧和成本超支的结合 多出几米, 人们不 不得 严重怀疑有人甚至会尝试 电气布线和安装挑战。 我们认为离岸 基础安装, 比较小。 此外, 渔船风险 以 55 度角离开地球的拉索不会阻碍 走新能源发展道路, 探索 风在高海拔的地面技术上是完全可笑的, 在 风暴 雨的夜晚撞上涡轮机。 拉线风 涡轮机 力 需要 大规模风能装置、 聚光太阳能和 联邦教育和研究部委托 MAN SE 和所需的攻角。 由于刀片向前倾斜, 因此它们保持 这种寻找碳氢化合物可行 力 替代品的共同努 建造一个名为 Growian 1 和 2 的兆瓦级风 发力 电机。 在两根电缆之间有少量 力张 的压缩负载 在 1990 年代做过, 尽管金属刀片较重, 但它们的性能 洛克希德公司并在俄亥俄州桑达斯基安装。 1978 年波音公司签约 刀片上的恒定张力。 安装在正面内侧的小滑轮 用 Mod-1 和 Mod-2 放大 Mod-O。 1976 年德国在 轴可以根据风载荷提供寿命和张力调整 独立” 报告研究了多种不 力 同的风 涡轮机 突出刀片约束系统。 一系列电缆, 数量相等 风 涡轮机的 力 突出之处在于它们使用金属叶片代替玻璃 配置, 包括一个双叶片涡轮机, 其桅杆高达 安装的叶片, 从一个延伸轴以 40 度角跨越, 该延伸轴是 纤维。 玻璃纤维技术尚未达到其成熟程度 千尺。 1975 年, NASA 将叶片制造外包给 近年来由于对温室气体的恐惧而被超越, 而 是不 丹麦, 广泛的研究和开发正在与 植根于转子轮毂。 六根电缆延伸和缩回以保持 附着点。 虽然整体架构保持显着 而 是资源 不 枯竭。 1974 年, 美国能源部委托“项目 丹麦和意大利的 ELSAM Nibe 系列涡轮机, 上图 一致, 确实出现了一些区别。 是什么造就了 1970 年代的一代 纵向压缩而 是不 弯曲。 通过支撑电缆, 一个 小直径支撑电缆。 当涡轮叶片必须转动其角度 和长寿将优于今天的玻璃纤维。 钢刀片可以 可以显着减少压 (压 最集中的地方) 力 力 攻击时, 允许电缆从附件拉长和缩回 真相。 丹麦 Nibe A 凭借其更薄的金属刀片, 实现了 减少刀片上的压 是力 通过使用从一个延伸的拉索 以最小的空气动力学损失显着减轻叶片的方法, 来自转子轮毂的轴, 并允许拉索将叶片装入 主要是由于湍流造成的风压小幅下降 应力 不幅 超过钢可循环百亿次 超过 300 MPa 到略低于 100 MPa。 叶片的弯矩为 使用 CFD 的合理限制, 并且没有重大变化需要改进 500 兆帕。 如果使用铝, 例如 7075 T6, 循环寿命可以超过 从 1000 毫米减少到仅 50 毫米之间的末端和 它们的升 系力 数是可能的。 实际上, 这与 如果应 保力 持在 150 MPa 以下,

则可进行 1 亿次振幅循环。 一个解法 设计得 薄更 , 由于其 高的 更 抗拉强度, 更 实现。 涡轮叶片在纵向压缩中非常强, 如果 中间电缆。 用正面旋转支柱支撑叶片是一种优雅 伸出轴上的点, 允许刀片扭转。 有一个共同点 可以实现空气动力学的最佳几何形状。 例如, 4140 用两条电缆支撑, von Mises 应 减力 少了三倍 认为现存的风 涡轮机 力 叶片已经“优化” 到超越的误解 系数为 0.39。 带拉线金属刀片, 功率系数 高更 独特的翼型形状, 其高度弧度很容易观察到 功率密度显着提高, 在 12 米/秒时约为 450 w/m2, 可能源于减小叶片弦厚度的能 。力 几何, 占其高 CP 的原因。 其他厂商不这样做的原因 对于 750, 轴从轮毂的转速仅为 15 RPM 左右 提高功率系数, 转化为 高的 更 功率密度。 这 由于其无与伦比的风 涡轮机存在的最高 力 功率密度 Enercon E-44 在 12 m/s 的功率下实现了 460 w/m2 的功率密度 CP 在 12 米每秒时为 0.45, E-44 在 12 m/s 时的 CP 为 0.44。 这 但经过检查, 我们可以很容易地看出刀片类似于旧金属 千瓦/平方米, 分别。 Nibe A 和 E-44 效率 高更 太空网搜索引擎。 风 涡轮机的最大 力 限制 设计, 具有更纤细的几何形状, 看起来与标准完全不同 与今天使用的平均风 涡轮机 力 相比, 这归因于最佳 重塔之后的技术就是需要增速变速箱。 现存的设计。 细长的叶片实现了 高的 更 升阻比, 而大多数现代玻璃纤维叶片涡轮机的鲸鱼形 Nibe A(下图)、 Enercon E-44 和 Enercon E-70 的功率曲线。 这 细长的刀片几何形状。 Enercon E-70 目前拥有绝对 合适的翼型设计是未知的, 因为 Enercon Gmbh 没有 球茎叶片勉强达到 300 w/m2。 Enercon E-44 是一个例外, 每秒 12 米的功率密度分别为 0.434、 0.46 kW/m2 和 0.48 维护 Google 专利档案或欧洲专利中的任何专利 典型的 1 MW 同步发电机。 相反, 通过仅添加两个 配置将消除风面临的唯一主要危险之一 千瓦涡轮机。 15 RPM 发电机的重量和成本将非常高 额外的 星行 齿轮, 我们可以将 RPM 从 1500 增加到 20,000 涡轮机: 电气火灾: 也许令人惊讶的是, 火灾是主要的火灾之一 标准机油(50 厘泊) 并具有出色的摩擦学性能 预计将接近。 这种缠绕强度转化为直接成本 插入小直径低扭矩驱动轴的配置 目前现货价格为 4500 美元/兆瓦, 或大约 40% 的成本 柱的外部驱动地面上的发电机。 这样一个 下降到勉强 150 公斤, 非常接近线性下降。 平均铜 材料 料 量 以减少昂贵材 的用 。 对于 20,000 RPM Hydrostatus 系统也在研究使用 燃的 不易 离子 90 kW 感应电机在 1500 RPM 时的绕组强度约为 同步发电机, 所需的铜量仅为 100 公斤, 或 用于齿轮箱润滑的液体。 许多离子液体的粘度高达 0.47 kg/kW, 没有同步发电机的数据, 但数字 禁止的。 1500-1800 RPM 同步发电机的质量已经 只有几十公斤的钢, 这是铜成本的九分之一。 这个 800 美元。 Hydrostatus 系统正在积极考虑无发电机 风 涡轮机 力 故障的原因, 通过拆除电气元件, 它是 近 3 吨, 而如果速度增加到 20,000 RPM, 质量 是一个非常聪明的设计权衡, 即使用稍微便宜一点的 难以产生点燃 燃易 料材 所需的火花。 可以从较小的电机中节省下来。 没有这种 这导致必须由塔架结构承受的 大更 力阻 , 特性。 一台 1 兆瓦 1500 RPM 的同步发电机与 增速齿轮箱, 重型低速发电机, 需要永久 无论是常规的还是静液压的。 尽管永磁体的成本很高 元素和可以构建它的材料基板, 以及它们的 以较高的速度运行, 即增加摩擦、 热 和随 量 后的 缺点, 发电机的重 即量 量 使在调整重 后 润滑退化。 但与成本相比, 这些担忧是微 足不 道的 由于增加了机舱体积, 因此变速箱的尺寸使其成为一个没有吸引力的选择 执行后, 变速箱在较高速度部分的使用寿命要长得多, 因为 额外使用镨以增加低通 密量 度 不 力 像铂族金属那样实际上限制了风 发电的可扩展性 即使摩擦和热 有所 量 减少, 扭矩也会显着降低 速度, 通常比高速贵十倍或 多更 限制燃料电池的可扩展性。 技术最终从属于 更高。 有些人可能会反对与相关的附加变速箱挑战 20,000 RPM 版本。 节省的铜量 易 很容 支付增加的费用 磁铁, 通常由钕制成, 必须使用, 在显着 同步发电机或感应发电机。 超越单纯的成本 发电机, 钕, 尤其是镨, 与流 的行 相反 变速箱级。 需要注意的是, 一旦初始高扭矩降低 成本和重量损失。 这些低速永磁交流发电机 相信, 大多数镧系元素根本 是不 “稀有” 的。 钕储量 固溶强化、 沉淀硬化、 塑性 但这是值得庆幸的, 因为他们使用的数量很少。 A 低速 技术地质属性。 在结构工程领域, 人 可以进行变形以产生人类已知的最强金属, 永磁发电机每兆瓦平均使用 650 公斤磁铁, 磁铁是完全省去变速箱, 我们将选择 650 元素, 可能在结构应用中大放异彩, 但磁性有限 全球范围内的部署水平, 即使许多技术使用 或电性能。 铁是仅次于铝的最丰富的金属, 极其稀缺的元素, 例如催化转化器, 已经扩大规模, 除了钛, 几乎所有可用的高强度金属都是 技术。 由于元素稀缺而无法扩展的技术, 中速永磁电机, 磁铁负载为 160 kg, 用于 亚铁。 人类并没有被赋予更多的异国情调 不管它看起来多么令人印象深刻, 它都是一种无用的技术。 PEM 燃料 高速, 它下降到 80 公斤。 由于整点使用永久 元素, 他能接触到的最丰富的元素, 都比较平淡 享有特权的有利位置, 因为只有一种有色金属 它具有相当不寻常的电子轨道形状。 对于任何技术来说 电池和锂离子镍钴锰电池都无法扩展到 其中, 按质量计算, 钕占 22%, 镨占 0.76%, 尽管 抗拉强度接近 1000MPa 的合金, 即铍铜。 可 的, 行 其材料成分必须与对上述需求的需求相适应 一些估计表明使用了多达 4% 到 6% 的镨。 为了 速度单位。 电机的功率密度是其线性函数 变速箱也 完全完美 不 。 风 涡轮机 力 齿轮箱有 kg/MW 用于我们的可扩展性分析。 我们所有可扩展性的基准 旋转速度, 所以我们能做的最糟糕的事情就是操作 历史上遭受超过理想的故障频率, 主要是由于 暗示使用某种形式的变速箱系统进行 力动 传输, 百万强, 因此钕和镨的稀缺性令人担忧, 停机时间。 变速箱设计: 风 涡轮机技术的 力 致命弱点。 而是与高成本相比, 它们增加的成本、 重量和占用的体积 虽然直接驱动涡轮机受到明显的电机限制, 为这些大电网供电或近 90,000 吨钕和 3,000 吨 低速机器。 钕铁硼磁体的元素组成。 由于我们的 负载, 这会导致负载的突然引入。 术语“流体静力学” 镨。 钕的估计储量巨大, 为简单起见, 涡轮机以 100%“容量系数” 运行, 我们的年发电量 当提到风 涡轮机技术 力 时, 几乎总是 估计为 2000 万吨, 镨估计为 2 研究是美国或欧洲的 , 力量 它们都在 3-40 亿左右 发电机低速运行。 速度调制系统比 输出是其每小时输出乘以 8760 小时减去 3-5% 维护 通过周期性扭矩负载。 与工业机械中使用的齿轮箱不同 浪费材料 力 和人 建造超重的建筑 每年兆瓦时。 我们需要 450,000 千瓦的装机容量 恒定运行, 风 涡轮机 力 齿轮箱受到等时 传动系统设计师能够设计出接近无损的纯静液压 因为它会沿软管壁、 泵和电机表面产生粘性阻力 即将 RPM 提高到合适的发电速度。 液压油是 变速机。 离子液体具有体积模量 量 (测 面积, 因为任何给定体积的液压介质只包含这么多 塔技术没有对 如上所述的动力传动系统相对于 液压回路 量 力 力 中的能 损失是流体的粘性阻 和压 齿轮箱, 具有几乎零压缩性的离子液体提供 在长软管回路中以高流速泵送。 流体损失, 动 ,量 结合短程流 和路 漏 低泄 密封, 可能会打开 看似微 足不 道, 但对于液压系统来说, 在最大可能的范围内, 这可以通过最小化电路来实现 无级变速静液压速度的可能性, 最终摆脱 净效率的差异。 压缩时吸收的能量越少 距离。 设计一个变革性和创新性的东西没有什么意义 来自风 涡轮机的 力 恼人齿轮箱。 而传统的液压 设计无限速变速器非常方 ,便 但损失 不可压缩性) 在 400 bar 时几乎为 3.6 吉帕, 而传统 流体, 用于执行有用工作的剩余越多。 一个主要原因 能 ,量 即粘性引起的动量 量 损失的 , 是显着的。 一个 液压油在 2.2 左右, 只会增加至。 这种差异可能 已经阻止了这项技术的应用。 离子液体的使用, 理 力 路 想的静液压动 传输电 将减少粘性损失 与自转轴的距离成正比, 太阳直径较大 外切向力下降到 243,000 磅, 与五个 星一 行 起分布 主涡轮模块。 我们的风 涡轮机, 力 使用高 齿轮在接触点处承受减小的负载。 使用 星行 环 齿轮, 每个 星行 齿轮一次只面对 49,000 磅, 保持 von Mises 磨损或应力开裂, 技术人员只需松开螺栓的一部分 材料在 42CrMo 等普通齿轮钢的疲劳极限范围内 kW 涡轮机, 叶尖速比约为 6.5, 产生 RPM 和 18CrNiMo7-6。 由于旋转物体的切向力为 15 产生 400,000 英尺磅的扭矩。 齿轮半径为 500mm, 元素。 目前的消费量 不并 认为锰本身是稀缺的 从而将扭矩分配到多个面上, 从而降低压 。力 分成几个部分, 以帮助维护和可修复性, 而 会不 影响 准备金率。 阿基米德杠杆反向。 可以通过智能 一旦提供了最初的大部分减速, 扭矩就会下降 任何方式的齿轮操作的平稳性。 如果齿轮齿失效 工程以尽 减量 力 少作用在齿轮齿上的 , 以保持 速度发生器, 利用非常少的稀缺元素, 或行 行 星驱动允许设计师在多个 星齿轮上共享负载 戏剧性地, 齿轮可以设计得更轻。 对于 800 应力低于 15 MPa。 Hydrostatus Systems 设计了一种新型齿轮 每个 星在其本地自 行 转时都会经历自己的本地接触点, 4140 钢中的锰含 大约是 量 唯一使用的准稀缺 太阳齿轮上的齿面被分解的配置 磅至 75,000 英尺磅。 太阳轮齿面可分为 6 个或 多更 和径向载荷, 例如, 50 米的风 涡轮机可能有 力 叶片 齿轮就位, 无需卸下整个齿轮。 这种方法还省 部分, 每个部分通过花键连接到主轮。 齿轮部分是 重 7 吨, 轮毂重 0.8 吨。 径向载荷不仅 重力 力 垂直承载能 。 由于寄生功率损耗成正比 1170 公斤。 上图中的齿轮采用最初产生的最高扭矩 实现变速箱效率。 磁力和静压轴承, 游戏 通过涡轮机并增加到 75 RPM, 扭矩从 375,000 英尺下降 改变者或只是分心? 风 涡轮机 力 受到非常大的轴向 仅对最初的低速减速器是必需的, 一旦 RPM 很高 贝尔 OH-58 直升机上的主旋翼齿轮箱保持机械 由作用在叶片侧面的强阵风产生。 因此, 一风 足够了, 齿轮的直径只需很小, 便于 在最大扭矩时效率为 98.4%, 在其一小部分时降至 95% 涡轮轴承必须具有非常强的横向承载能 以力 及 替代品。 5:1 可更换截面减速齿轮。 大约重量: 较小的 CNC 机床或线切割 EDM 机床的制造成本可以降低 由固定在齿轮上的板固定到位。 现代变速箱 峰值扭矩。 由于高海拔风的变化较小, 因此较高的风 来自旋转设备的自重, 还有风 技术非常高效。 比如主减速器 由于工件尺寸被最小化。 请注意, 分段齿轮是 横向作用在叶片上的 。力 可能再增加十吨 的输出功率。 磁 轴承 力 力 力 靠的是排斥 和吸引 对于 60,000 kg/m3 的磁压, 约为 10 毫瓦/kg。 为一个 与轴承摩擦, 摩擦与施加的 成力 正比, a 电磁铁产生必要的悬浮 的 。 力 力 这 保守估计, 我们将使用 12 mW/kg, 因此对于 10 径向载荷 铜绕组的相对体积和成本, 第二个是 0.005 的系数将产生 320 瓦的功率损耗, 或 500 牛顿 取决于磁通强度, 更 更 多的电流流过 少的绕组 直径为 800 毫米的轴以 20 RPM 旋转, 或大约 0.00053% 产生更 量 多的热 和涡流损耗。 平均耗电量 或磁轴承。 这就是问题的症结所在, 所有替代方案 约 17%。 在 2.5 毫米的间隙处, 力下降 30%, 磁场 经进一步审查, 有一些值得注意的问题有助于 轴承技术实际上有 大的 更 寄生损失, 补偿 强度随距离的倒数立方而下降。 所需的功率 阻止这项技术进入主流使用。 一个中心问题是 他们超长的寿命。 具有典型摩擦的推力球轴承 即使在低速下, 重轴旋转也会产生很小的功率损失, 这 可实现的零间隙力在 50,000 到 70,000 kg/m2 以上 电磁铁从每公斤 3 毫瓦到每公斤 10 毫瓦 等不 , 轴承, 我们将消耗 1 kW, 或者是摩擦辊的三倍以上 电磁铁, 但在 1 毫米的间隙距离处, 这将减少 当然需要大于静液压所需的功率 轴承。 乍一看, 这似乎是理想的磁铁设计, 但 轴承或传统的摩擦轴承。 相比之下, 静压轴承 询问这是否是一个合 的工程 理 决策。 总而言之, 很少 精确平衡电磁线圈阵列内的轴。 精确间隙 在 100 bar 下运行会产生 700,000 kg/m2 的压 ,力 允许 有理由相信轴承技术能够接受重大改进 宏观创新。 远离渐进主义和次要的世界 磁轴承已打开。 所需的体积很大 因此, 功率是 6000 瓦, 或者是摩擦轴承的 16 倍。 如果 因为与静水压力相比, 相对磁压 非力 常低 减少摩擦最终会增加系统中的功率损失, 必须 除了最高速度的应用外, 所有应用中都包含磁性轴承。 这 油膜厚度为 50 微米, 这是静压轴承的典型值, 如果 微创新, 无论是在速度调制、 轴承技术还是 另一个问题是缺乏冗余, 所有磁轴承系统都需要一个 直径为 800mm, 长度为 350mm, 假设为钢面, 流 甚至叶片空气动力学, 恰恰是微创新的反义词: a 辅助摩擦轴承, 必须能够减轻其负载时, 操作高频馈入数字控制器的传感器是 更紧凑的轴承。 使用压降作为我们的流量 每分钟 20 升的流速会产生 100 bar 的压降。 抽水 努力, 将其他系统作为潜在的流程候选者 必要的稳定运行, 这有助于劝阻设计师 行列式, 我们可以计算轴承的泵送功率。 对于一个油 强化和改善。 需要什 不 么而 是杂乱无章的边缘 技术, 可以极大地增强风能的 。 力量 我们 努力。 这项技术是如此新颖, 以至于必须有一个全新的词汇表 调整是必要的, 从根本上飞跃到 高的技术水 更 平被称为 将该技术命名为“自立张紧静水 开发, 全新的概念必须规范化和现代 冷拉金属钢丝绳制造。 技术兼容性 坚实地面的安全性, 以独特的技术优化达到高潮。 通过增加涡轮机运行 量 高度来增加能 。 一部引人入胜的小说 以下文字旨在简要介绍这种新型 违反结构工程规范的结构由此产生 能源的新使命。 这种范式改变了我们支持风的方式 广泛使用布线来推导其结构的结构 可从商业用品中获取的当代材料, 并使用 涡轮机, 一个“空中平台”, 允许设计师放置最先进的 完整性和分配负载。 Hydrostatus Systems 发明了这项技术 目前关于气体密封、 压缩、 黑色金属螺纹的知识, 以及 风车在存在的最猛烈的风制度, 同时停留在 为了。 库恩范式转变和结构方式的革命 用于风 涡轮机和 力 蜂窝塔的悬浮塔技术”。 一根电缆 2022 年 2 月, 经过数月的研究如何改善风力 文献必须相应 新更 。 这种新型静水压结构 中国的斜桥。 斜拉桥是为数不 梁 多的陆上桥 之一 构造, 远离欧拉柱朝向静水柱, 是风 准备好被利用, 需要零研究和开发, 使用 气体), 以及通过拉紧拉索来稳定自身。 三分之一 围绕这种静压结构技术, 可以说 现有的材料和专有技术意味着它拥有技术 特征是结构使用顺序管提升自身的能力 几乎所有可以想象到的人类可能的想法都在某些领域获得了专利 结构性应用程序, 很少有人拥有, 但是 张紧” 突出了结构产生自生刚度的能力 使用它, 但仅提供使用有限的基本球形结构。 从希望膨胀流体静力介质(液体或 尽管没有商业应用和高度的新颖性 超过 1000 英尺或 300 米的高度允许风能开发商利用 运输。 仅此功能即可节省数万美元 在商业上挣扎。 很难相信没有人想象过 之前转化为取之不尽的高速风能 在每个涡轮机安装中, 进一步最小化 LCOE。 基本概念 使用流体静力 力 或气动流体的 来承载重物 因缺乏合适的选择而挥霍。 “自我” 一词的使用 处于第 8 阶段的准备水平。 由于流体静 的巨大 力 力量 伸展机制, 我们称之为“自体勃起”, 它 利用压 产生 力 不 刚性本身并 新鲜, 充气圆顶使 变异或其他, 即使不完全同源, 也很难找到不 力与结构工程相结合, 可以设计一个塔来达到 消除了对昂贵且笨重的起重机及其随 人行 员的安装需求 专利文献中的远亲, 不 什知 么原因, 通过将负载转移到 文学。 梅克 的液压建 勒 筑系统。 2009 年, 梅尔文 L.普鲁伊特 尽管如此, 文献仍然完全晦涩难懂, 而且该专利文献 混凝土或钢柱的压缩。 这些桥梁表现出色 获得专利的充气结构利用压缩空气利用其刚性 侧向的家伙, 使用压 作为 力 刚性的来源, 加载是材料 加载的结构构件。 使用压缩来承受拉伸载荷是绝对 的 不行 在建筑物和工业厂房”, 他的流体填充管概念 指一种新颖的或未经证实的概念, 世界范围内的斜拉桥 成员被介绍了, 但这个想法从未被连续引用 对于中层建筑, 他继续研究了另外两个变体 管, 然后将这些活塞中的每一个连接到中间构件 Vectran 纤维“口袋” 堆叠形成一个刚性塔。 普鲁伊特气动 初始设计。 这个概念是使用圆周张力或“箍 它连接管状桁架配置的构件, 如在

塔使用 Vectran “块”。 Prueitt 提出了使用的概念 应力” 以吸收通常的压缩和弯曲载荷 并没有蔓延到教科书文学中。 1970 年 11 月, 弥尔顿 在大风中, 电缆阻力令人惊讶地证明几乎没有责任。 梅克 ,勒 下图。 1981 年, 梅克勒 量 出版了一本名为《能 守恒》 的书。 低抗压强度纤维。 普鲁伊特称他的发明为“压缩 梅克 为在 勒 管状构件内使用液压油的设计申请了专利 在我们的设计中, 确实在空心的末端采用了一个自由浮动的活塞 空气刚性积木”。 Prueitt 的设计采用气动技术, 并使用 使其能够相对于电缆或外管轴向移动。 什么时候 包裹在高抗拉强度的单向纤维材料中, 以承受 仅拉紧, 但与以下专利不同, 未能建立连接 管子被加压, 一些力 力 被吸收在环向应 中 更 力 高的环向应 ”。 不按时间顺序排列, 以下是同源列表 类似的概念。 1951 年, 阿奇博尔德· 米尔恩· 汉密尔顿为一项设计申请了专利 液压“Euler buckling free” 细长柱专利图纸。 这 压力 不管 受压缩载荷, 因为它的末端是 以下来自 Bitterly 的专利描述: “压力管安装在 在 压不 缩管子的情况下自由轴向移动。 压力管可以是 承受垂直载荷的环向应力液压柱。 苦涩的 否则。 当系统上施加压缩载荷时, 它可以支撑 存档, 可以合 地理 预期其中有私人文件 设计非常接近我们的, 实际上是我们的设计, 除了唯一的 力 力 不 达到预紧 而 表现出欧拉屈曲。 该系统是 尚未公布的公司或政府机构暗示 不同之处在于我们的拉线是横向定向的。 苦涩的 活塞自由浮动往复运动。 静液压系统并不孤单 管, 并且一些力 力 被引导到压 管的末端并 适用于长而细的柱和刚度很重要的长梁。 个人获得专利的液压或气动结构 在我们对一类新结构的研究中。 1984 年, Jack G Bitterly 获得专利 电缆或外部构件通过活塞装置或 这些年。 有趣的是, 这就是我们在专利中看到的 压缩载荷。 但与苦涩不同的是, 他 使用自 不 由浮动活塞。 专利局, 特鲁埃尔在他的网站上宣传古怪的自由能源噱头, 气动支撑的塔式结构, 根据专利 2008 年, Michael Regan 为气动柱申请了专利, 题为: “Fluid 这通常是创造力的缺点。 2010 年, Charles R. Welch 等人 与上述设计没有区别。 以下是来自 负载”。 在专利中, 他描述了环向应力 料 复合材 的使用 标题为: “压缩流体建筑结构”, 设计看起来很 填充气态介质的纤维柱, 用于支撑 类似于德雷克的专利。 尽管特鲁埃尔的专利被美国接受 张紧。 以下是汉密尔顿气动的专利图 承重柱标题为: “高抗屈曲管柱” 2004 年, Roland B. Heath 为另一个液压柱申请了专利, 标题为: 刚性结构。 2001 年, William E Drake 获得了气动柱的专利 与液压或气动介质的预期用途。 2010 年, 埃尔伯托 “承重加压液柱”。 该专利实际上出现 结构标题为“柱结构和支撑压缩的方法 描述, 将使用 80-100 PSI 的空气来产生刚度, 但他没有 加压结构部件”。 设计是一个恒定的体积 Berdut Teruel 为静压柱构件的另一种设计申请了专利 为他们命名为“Hydrostatically Enabled” 的静压结构申请了专利 使用自由浮动活塞, 因此他无法完成自我壮举 收容单元。 1993 年, Raul AI Schoo 为液压装置的设计申请了专利 结构元素(HESE)”, 这种设计看起来也几乎相同。 在 方向, 它们的共同点, 因此它们在本文中的引用 静压结构, 无论其材料成分如何, 几何形状 以上专利。 可以明显看出, 它们似乎遵循一种模式: 它们 说明, 是它们都使用某种形式的静水介质的压力 方向, 或流体静力介质。 一个固定体积的静水压结构将 可变容积静压结构是自由浮动活塞自由的地方 虽然 Prueitt 和各种专利不一定都可以自由使用 各自的液压和气动结构是之间的区别 往复式活塞, 它们也不使用固定在横向上的拉索 固定和可变容积系统。 A 的两种主要架构 在拉索中产生自生张力。 下面是各种图片 就像普鲁伊特的压缩空气刚性建筑一样, 如果 是没有的 不 话, 也很少 执行 行 外部自我张紧的 为。 所有这些专利是什么 上述专利排名不分先后。 以下专利可以 块使用 Velcran 纤维。 一个重要的区别, 事实上 排除 Bitterly 的共同点是它们使用固定体积的列。 一个 在本页底部的源代码部分中进行更详细的研究。 是使用液压油来承载负载的基本气缸 在固定或可变容积的安全壳结构中以产生刚性 使我们能够将它们分开和分类的主要区别特征 当然会对其周围的墙壁施加压 ,力 它会在其内部产生张力 列式制度, 但没有人进入下一个合乎逻辑的步骤, 即 并通过环向加载绕过欧拉屈曲, 否则他们拥有 纵向, 但由于体积相对固定, 不能 结构仍然是一种异常现象, 并引起人们的奇怪目光。 这 用于评估任何技术, 因为总是有显着 在约束拉索允许的范围内纵向移动 相对广泛的专利文献可作为对那些 尽管技术可疑, 但仍通过的专利数量 结构应用。 尽管有巨大的上升空间, 但没有一个陆地 管内浸没在流体中以保持活塞两端的活塞 获得批准, 因此可以找到与电重力有关的专利 管。 尽管有大量但被忽视的专利文献, 静水压 或其他尚未证明的现象。 当然, 仅凭这一点是 可能的 不 只有与我们最相似的 Bitterly 的设计才能发挥作用 文献必须在技术上具有一定的可 性行 才能被批准为有用的 原则。 鉴于这种丰富的“现有艺术”, 令人惊讶的是没有 天才的一击, 采用了自由浮动的活塞, 它产生了一个 发明。 有趣的是, 根据美国专利法, 一项技术 努力 力 力 利用流体静 学产生的巨大 和刚度 可变容积室。 苦涩巧妙地使用了高强度电缆固定 至。 这提供了在外部产生纵向张力的可能性, 并且 对该技术的可 性持 行 怀疑态度, 因为毕竟每项专利都是 实际上不 理 律 必与当前的“物 定 ” 兼容 可 性。 行 一项技术只能通过方法论和 随后允许承受横向载荷, 例如风切变载荷。 由合格的审查员审查, 因此专利中的几乎所有内容 对其工作原 和方法 理 行进 整体分析, 以实现这种工作 围绕电缆起点处的固定枢轴点旋转的圆形路径, 分为两个基本类别, 均匀载荷或静水载荷, 以及 结构, 使用这种出色的新颖概念, 即使用 要移动几度, 它必须向下移动一段相当长的距离, 定向或异构负载。 作用在细长柱上的 为力 达到极限抗拉强度。 基本工作原理 用于拉紧电缆。 固定长度的电缆不能横向转动 了解以及为什么永远无法将静液压刚性塔与 除非它遵循其高度相关的角度。 作为电缆枢轴, 它遵循 经典拉线塔。 结构荷载的性质结构荷载可以是 拉线塔和斜拉桥, 唯一的区别是拉线塔 向上推塔使其在风中弯曲, 而静水 著名的“欧拉屈曲”。 这种屈曲动态将发生在某个 是弹性的, 它是垂直可压缩的, 因此是横向柔性的, 而 c 结构不断被“拉” 或被推起来, 就像一个巨大的起重机 长细比, 通常在 30 左右。 柱屈曲发生在很久以前 能够斜拉桥的弹性要小得多, 因为死者的自重 圆柱形压力 力 容器的内部压 , 而 是不 传递它 除非这可以通过降低柱子的高度来促进, 否则结构 把整件事都悬在空中。 这是关键概念 压缩和扭转, 即变形, 因为它受到 可以横向与向上作用的 一力 样刚性。 这种缺乏任何力量 进入结构的墙壁。 从结构上看, a 没有区别 塑料 料材 变形。 对于细长的柱子, 失效模式是 阐明工作原 ,理 强调 能 水量 平被激发, 处于 自不 然的状态。 在金属或固体的情况下, 静压塔一般相当于液压缸或气压缸 加压或“充满活力的物质” 与平静但平静之间的区别 比如说石头, 原子可能会强烈凝固, 但它们 包含 不 任何 CNG 汽车中的压力容器, 都是希望释放能 的量 系统 容量, 因此没有高空塔实际上是 可能的 不 不同之处在于金属的能级处于平衡状态, 所以 使用超重的厚壁钢塔。 但之前 外力施加, 而对于我们的液体或气体介质, 增加柱的直径, 但随后您只需移动 使空气分子相互排斥的 与力 状态是非常不自然的, 就像高度还原的金属一样, 想要去 失效模式为另一种, 即弯曲屈曲和起皱。 使金属原子紧密地凝固在一起, 抵抗变形和 回到它的氧化态。 因此, 承载数米水的大坝或 细长或薄壁柱的压缩载荷非常有限 用于重型设备、 压 机力 或机械驱动。 没有免费的 高度坚固的材料。 最终, 来自压缩气体或液体的力 生成可用于结构目的的硬质物质。 这 渴望走阻力 路 量 最小的道 的可释放能 , 它们是 结构工程中的午餐, 你可能会逃脱经典的欧拉屈曲 源于分子间排斥, 其起源于电磁。 与周围环境和谐相处的稳定系统。 压缩气体 有效地悬浮或悬停, 但绝 允不 许流向其 不 力 超过静水压 的结构被结构的 突然爆发, 虽然金属没有这种冲动, 但两种状态都有 自然扩散状态。 在这种情况下, 我们只是能 的量 “容器” 动 ,量 钢结构或混凝土结构没有冲量或动态趋势, 由负载向下并压缩内部的气体, 为此产生一个力 我们必须用一种压缩的否则非常有弹性和浮 的物 力 质 实际上 可能, 不 就像一个人 可能拉 不 半 能量进入它们, 但绝 允不 量 许能 被释放, 能 是量 卡车在加速时用绳索在 上路 行驶。 每一个负载 一个坚固的表面, 所以我们现在可以做一些直觉上奇怪的事情, 比较一个 可能会出现, 无论是钢还是混凝土, 都 会产生 不 相等的对立面 抵抗材料 量 力 的弹性模 以外的 。 由于 有弹性的、 有浮 的力 、 可压缩的和其他无定形的气体变成坚硬的固体 强迫对抗作用在它上面的 。力 始终采用静压结构 容器中的压 是力 恒定的, 活塞不可能被推动 金属之类的材料。 不同之处仅在于生成稳固的条件 产生相同结果的潜力: 僵化状态。 比较的原因是 包含的压力介质, 总是在发挥它的 , 力量 但从不消耗 产生大于其额定载荷的 ,力 这意味着挠度是 事实上, 即使负载是 价值在于, 两种聚合状态都有可能产生刚性或 它。 还应该注意的是, 没有结构, 无论材 多么 料 坚硬 微 足不 道, 因为材料本质上是有弹性的, 没有任何作用 金属或纤维复合材料 力 处于张 状态, 没有免费的午餐, 我们需要 分布以及这如何解释结构的核心竞争力 大于静水压 是力 必要的, 这 会发生在 不 材料 力 承受压 , 问题的关键在于性质 优势。 这个关键点是“加载机制” 的性质及其 达到弹性, 不一定是它的抗拉强度, 更不用说它的屈服了 达到了屈服强度。 最终, 这种产生“自由刚性” 的策略 通电气体, 但重要的是我们如何加载这种材料。 返回 来自加压气体当然仍然必须由刚性材料产生, 在 工作原 ,理 要突出负载的性质 我们可以自由利用的几何漏洞: 塑料 料材 适应增加的压 ,力 但活塞仍会偏转 延展性。 但这种易变形的特性也产生了独特的 向下, 因为增加的压 只会 力 被管子吸收, 当它们没有不均匀变形时, 它们的张力要好得多, 脆弱性: 屈曲。 当材料 量模 为 但它 会取消 不 力 先前的压 或减少它, 除非管 结构的寿命。 如果发生这种过载, 压 柱力 加载机制, 碰巧几何在如何 只是一致地伸展。 就算我们还要承受那股力量 对材料行为的影响。 塑料 料材 自然就是这样: 将根据新增加的压力略微横向膨胀, 并且 相同的材料对负载做出反应, 因此可以将这项技术解释为 塑料, 它们很容易变形, 这就是它们巨大的原因 有可能实现巨大的压 ,力 有许多液压缸 达到。 200mm 的管子可以承载 130 吨, 而 会不 通过 强度达到。 金属绳很容 弯易 曲、 折叠和弯曲, 而无需 在 400 bar 下运行, 有些甚至在 700 bar 下运行。 这使得一个 欧拉屈曲只要用几根拉索垂直稳定就可以了! 一个 毫米充满 8.5 兆帕的气体或液体, 它可以携带近两个 油, 并且装有密封件的活塞被迫以等于 很容易 料 理 用钢或复合材 处 。 采用 4140 油淬 压力乘以面积。 液压的 来自于 力量 屈服强度 1300MPa 的钢, 安全系数可达 7 倍 与钢梁相比, 但与其相对的几何结构相比, 通过估计作用在 300 毫米直径活塞上 450 度的 来说明 力 壁厚较轻的管道, 如果直径为 450 毫米的管道壁厚为 允许加载机制利用其弹性。 圆周张力 酒吧。 活塞上的总力为 720,000 磅力或 325 公吨。 箍 只有 5 个 负载压力容器浸没在静水介质中, 通常是矿物 达到其屈服强度, 即永久变形的程度。 这 否则, 微小的管道可以承载高于其数量 量 级的重 200 毫米管子上的应力只有 190 兆帕, 壁直径为 11 毫米, 这 一个人可以在重负载时将一根细管笔直地举在空中 绳索能够轻 弯易 不曲 是因为任何神秘的属性差异 内在独立重量。 静水 的力 力量 易 很容 放在活塞上, 活塞感觉不到一克! 在一个 否则在环向应力状态下的抗压强度很差, 因此是一种独特的易共振结构。 因为风荷载可以 主战坦克从未屈曲。 这些说明性案例研究可能 例如 Kevlar-aramid, 这些纤维的每 MPa 成本仍然高于 导致桅杆弯曲从而改变其高度, 结构可以向后摆动 例如周期性风荷载或电缆振荡。 实际上, 这似乎并不 45 美元/公斤, 锰和铬便宜得多。 这意味着我们的 130 吨 然后, 受拉构件将垂直刚度转化为横向刚度。 试管仅需 15,000 美元! 虽然可以使用纤维复合材料 这与经典的拉线桅杆形成鲜明对比, 后者具有高弹性 关键的结构动力学。 因为作用在活塞上的向上的力 这根管子的重量是 50 公斤/米, 或只有 15 吨。 铬锰的成本 如果自然发生的负载失控放大引起的故障 钼钢通常在 1000 美元/吨左右, 因为 总是超过施加在其上的负载, 活塞无法向下偏转 结构的频率与动态惯性载荷状态同相, 钼上涨 100 美元/吨左右, 目前钼现货价格为 看起来很傻, 但它们在启迪 钢如 4140。 需要注意的是静压塔 同不 几毫米, 使结构在垂直方向上完全刚性。 随着 直到达到晶格的弹性极限。 经典的家伙 技术对于那些可能无法在概念上完全可视化它的人。 重量 与传统的拉杆塔相比, 不 力 仅在负载能 方面, 而且在 结构因此在某种程度上易受共振引起的结构的影响 刚性, 大约 55 Hz, 因此不可能发生共振。 电缆 使用斯托克布里奇阻尼器。 由于经典的格子塔具有有限的 发生, 但理论上, 如果风荷载在 在斜拉桥上体验所谓的“漩涡脱落” 抗压负载能 ,力 电缆不能高度张紧, 斜拉桥, 桥面仍为弹性结构, 其刚度 用于主横向拉索。 主要的风 涡轮机 力 支架和机舱 桅杆有弹性的拉线塔, 如果涡流脱落足够严重 结构将在 高的 更 行 频率下运 , 因为它的 大更 可能发生崩溃。 涡流脱落在经典拉线塔上得到缓解 与结构的固有频率完全对应, 对于高刚性或 方向。 涡旋脱落会导致电缆在某些雷诺处振动 电缆很容易说明。 在静压塔中, 电缆高度 刚性结构, 固有频率非常高, 而电缆甚至 数字, 通常在风速相对较高时。 对于刚性柱 紧张, 因为毕竟, 他们一直在承受负荷。 即使在一个 高张力的自然频率远低于 1 Hz, 约为 0.11 Hz 与格子桅杆的固有频率相同的频率。 谐振 相对较钝的表面后部存在的涡流周期性地交替 例如斜拉桥, 涡流脱落是很少关注的, 但对于一个 导致对气动弹性颤振或“疾驰” 的脆弱性, 其中 它们的传播方向, 产生垂直于风的力 诱发结构失效仅在周期性载荷发生时发生 电缆在风中上下摆动。 在下面的视频中, 相对松弛 经典的家伙塔使用 Stockbridge 阻尼器来控制低振幅高 管状晶格导致晶格逐渐扭转塌陷。 自从 是其自重以及横向和扭转刚度的直接函数。 频率振动, 用于高振幅低频振动, 液压 电缆是弹性构件(它们仅在纵向张力下是刚性的), 它们 仅在风荷载时将电缆从其自然下垂状态移回 张紧的电缆需要相当大的力才能拉伸, 风荷载缺乏这一点 已经记录了共振引起的故障案例, 大多数故障是 因此, 电缆会找到一个不受干扰的自然位置。 由超过弯曲强度的静态风荷载引起 弹性结构, 由于压 作用于 力 阻尼技术, 因为他们没有发现任何励磁问题和 平跨, 由于电缆呈 59 度角, 垂直垂度仅为 1.52 活塞用于施加恒定的张力, 吸收所有施加在 谐振。 在所有记录在案的灾难性人塔故障案例中, 与电缆相切的米 盛行风荷载太小, 无法 结构。 施加张力会显着减少奔跑, 因为 桥面设计为轻微移动, 因此是斜拉桥, 如 圆柱体用于斜拉桥上, 这些斜拉桥正交连接到 大多数可归因于螺栓失效、 锚固失效或金属疲劳, 但没有 垂直于它们的跨度具有无限的自由度。 对于 120,000 拉线桅杆, 是一种有点弹性的结构。 静压柱 是不 电缆, 但传统的拉线塔没有使用高振幅 kg 极限断裂强度电缆, 下垂约为 2.43 米

过度的电缆运动, 张力自然会增加频率 欧拉屈曲。 例如, 波音的主翼模块的质量 接近额定极限时, 电缆是否有明显颤振的能 。力 振动由于自由度受到限制, 运动将被吸收 747 是 45000 公斤, 而它的起飞重量可以接近 400000 公斤, 这 结构工程, 许多学科都充分利用了它。 动力 自由, 吸收任何电缆颤动的能 。量 上的紧张程度 最高的结构效率, 但大多数飞机结构部件 与张力 不 相对较小的拉索塔 同, 电缆可防止 不够细长, 无法经历过早的塑性变形, 例如 垂直于其纵向方向, 同时保持其纵向 结构的重 及量 力 料 其承载能 保持材 密度 塔通常具有负结构效率, 这意味着它将 紧张。 在放置绞盘的电缆底座系泊点, 每个 持续的。 结构效率在质量敏感工程中至关重要 比其支撑的负载重。 虽然流体静 没有 力 被利用 绞盘连接到一个液压阻尼器, 该阻尼器提供横向度数 为了消除电缆颤振和振动的传递, 横向阻尼器可以 通过更快速的迭代。 本发明的基本原 是理 学科, 例如比飞机重的飞机。 现代宽体飞机有 产生 10:1 的重量负载比。 在静压塔的情况下, 安装在塔顶结构上, 允许电缆移动 以结构效率为前提, 衡量两者之间的比率 结构效率在 45 MPa 时为 8.6:1, 在 8 MPa 时为 7.8:1。 一个常规的 例如, 结构工程已经能够利用加压 #3 电缆: 拉索或带绞盘的拉索组件, 2000 MPa 钢 几乎所有的热机都利用静水 ,力 第一个 充气圆顶、 汽车轮胎和篮球等介质 塑料护套和 Spelter 插座端接。 电缆馈入 使用对氢脆敏感的合金, 替代 来自大坝中的大溪流。 静水 的力 力量往往是 压 柱的 力 末端, #2 压 柱: 力 静水压力容器 被忽视并且很少应用于结构工程。 在一些 结构, 4140 油淬断面钢无缝管, 带端螺纹。 使用巨大的静水压 ,力 通常在峰值点火压 下为 力 200 bar, 以 自立式静水压由四个主要部件组成 对于土壤, 土壤的重量 力 提供了垂直承载能 。 锚是 产生它的 。 力量 挖掘机上的液压油缸产生数十吨 塔。 #1 承重活塞和扭力平台: 该模块包括 使用外加电流阴极保护进 电行 流保护。 如果钢 高压缩油产生的线性 ,力 更不用说产生的功率了 使用静水压 的力 英国冷凝式蒸汽机 这些结构利用静水 来发 力 挥作用并获得刚度, 自由浮动的密封活塞与隔膜组件连接到 具有自锁功能和内置液压的自动电动绞盘 将活塞推入部分真空。 现代柴油发动机 但是非常初级, 不能用于生成复杂的结构。 阻尼器。 #4 地锚: 覆盖地下钢球板 直到它退出最后。 Guy 电缆固定在支架上方的支架上 柱子的底部, 混凝土垫承受底部的重量 必须使用防腐蚀方法。 #5 基础垫 活塞, 防止活塞退出, 从而在活塞上产生张力 气缸的, 因为顶点活塞与底部活塞平行, 与 自由上下往复运动, 将其线性力之一传递给 伸缩过程。 进一步说明工作原 。理 作为 放置在活塞顶部。 这使得管子可以设计成超细的 端部开口的气缸被填充, 活塞被推到气缸的末端 成员由于我们消除了横向和压缩载荷的事实。 在 管部分并将它们拧在一起。 地下管道延长线 基础垫, 承受静水 的力 量重 以及 柱子的横向稳定性来自一系列家伙, 就像经典 筒仓配有氮气压缩机和 PSA 装置, 带有多功能管 管的重量。 如前所述, 承压气缸是 拉线通讯塔。 在气缸末端, 活塞能够 插入、 密封和分隔机制, 有利于连续 地下安装筒仓。 筒仓容纳独特的“常数 电缆。 管子垂直放置在空气中, 活塞一直在 仅受环向应力的影响, 圆柱体不 量 承受任何可以承受的重 相同的无摩擦密封机制。 圆柱是一个细长的圆柱体, 直径伸缩桅杆”, 通过插入 10 米 管的顶部就在末端附近, 管的底部连接到一个 设计为仅承受静水介质的内部压 ,力 900 公斤的碳钢电缆可以承载 250,000 牛顿的 ,力 跨度为 如果经常来回绞盘, 则会磨损和退化。 凯夫拉尔确实拥有 管壁。 由于色谱柱充满加压介质, 300 米, 而等效的受压构件将重 比强度比钢高, 但不幸的是, 比强度越高 倍, 而成本高出 25 倍, 或比强度后, 7.5 倍 它们是金属或复合纤维, 以拉伸状态加载。 全塑料 交换。 芳纶或凯夫拉是另一种选择, 但耐磨性差 材料的拉伸性能比压缩性能好, 因为它们具有弹性。 一个 阻力意味着它必须衬有合适的外壳, 否则它会迅速 气缸, 拉索承载所有这些力并将其传递给 力量。 可以使用合成光纤电缆, 但存在许多限制。 71,000 公斤, 每米重量为 4.28 公斤, 同时破 地面上的基础垫。 这是最优雅的方面之一 可以使用超高分子量聚乙烯, 但蠕变过大, 强度芳纶绳的质量为 1.28 kg/m, 相差仅 3.34 结构技术是它对材料的内在渴望的开发, 被 活塞受到的力 力 等于压 乘以面积。 这股力量 超过负载。 布线材料的选择范围缩小到高 每年高达 5%, 限制其长期使用, 无需频繁使用电缆 强度并不能弥补其较高的成本, 大约 25 美元/公斤。 例如, 将导致活塞以极快的速度被提升, 直到它离开末端 低蠕变、 低成本和高比强度的钢丝 一根直径为 35 毫米的 1960 MPa 钢索的断裂强度为 0.70-0.90% 锰, 超过 0.1% 但通常低于 1.0% 铬和 从电线的冷拔。 发生的塑性变形产生 更高。 考虑到其耐磨性差, 芳纶不 力 具吸引 钒、 0.008% 的铝和 0.030% 的磷。 打破 在丝的参数上具有更坚固和均匀的晶粒结构, 这 允许导线相对于另一根相邻导线移动, 加载的 最高可达 2100 MPa, SWRH 82A 可达 2200 MPa。 SWRH 82B 高 强度和价格钢, 总的布线成本可以忽略不计。 上级 碳素硬线材由 0.79-0.84% 的碳、 0.15-0.35% 的硅制成合金, 钢缆在实心杆上的强度归因于加工硬化 广泛的商业用途, 选择范围缩小到黑色金属, 约束活塞。 用途广泛的碳素钢丝的成本 生产出比其他方式更强大的产品 在斜拉桥中得到广泛和极其可靠的使用。 在预应力混凝土中, 通常低于 1000 美元/吨, 而有些极 碳钢合金在梁或杆配置。 此外, 由于每个 SWRH 82B 碳钢电缆合金的极限抗拉强度范围为 选项。 由于聚酯、 尼龙和聚丙烯要么太弱要么太弱 直径 21 毫米的 82B 线的强度为 57,000 公斤。 每米的重量是 高性能电缆可以超过 1000 美元/吨, 即使使用最高 这就是为什么随着线材直径的缩小, 其抗拉强度会增加。 大约 2.4 公斤, 总共 3,000 公斤的电缆用于 容易蠕变, 而 Vectran、 Twaron、 Technora 或 Zylon 太小众了 用多根小直径电线构建钢索 铅在贝氏体相区的温度约为 550 C。 导线是 热相变”。 碳素钢丝的弹性模量为 组件变得 加更 动态, 因为负载可以分布到 然后在这个范围内保持一段时间, 然后最终允许 通常在 150,000 到 200,000 牛顿/平方毫米之间。 冶金学 变得完全僵硬, 无法弯曲。 管子没有这个 加热预线材的生产技术称为“专利” 直径小于 0.8 毫米的导线的截面积, 强度下降 在 970 C 时变为奥氏体相, 然后在熔盐浴中淬火或 2000 N/mm2 对于较粗的电线。 “专利” 是“Iso” 的非正式名称 损害整个结构, 因为负载分布在几十个 含碳 ,量 抗拉强度越高, 最大含碳量 效率。 在自生塔中, 由于活塞受到向上的 ,力 它 的小电线, 由于数字定律, 所有人都 太可能 不 受限于所需的最低延展性。 单根电线 立即上升, 在此过程中拉紧电缆, 直到结构 在同一地区有缺陷。 钢丝是用一种新颖的方法生产的 周围的电线。 钢丝绳更坚固的另一个原因是 冷却至环境温度。 最终产物是索氏体晶体结构 强度可高达每平方毫米十字 4000 牛顿 钢丝的特性进一步印证了抗拉的优点 材料, 由薄层渗碳体和铁素体组成。 越高的 消除单个故障点。 晶粒结构薄弱点不 加载结构, 因为它有助于促进 优越 更 的特定结构 尽管如此, 机舱仍然受到风 的静态 的 力 力 影响 塔在压缩中失败, 而 是在 不 弯曲中失败。 当塔要弯曲时, 线性 ,力 因为它只受到环向应力, 因此管子可以是 导致它弯曲, 这种弯曲运动是防止发生与 电缆必须旋转, 因为它们 能不 伸展, 因此, 唯一的方法是 管稳定拉索。 由于管子想从风中弯曲, 除了风摩擦作用在管子上的横向载荷外。 这 风, 拉索可能会阻止这种情况, 但是这种横向力很简单 承压管, 同时不 力 受重 载荷的影响 直接转或转成压缩加载, 经典的家伙 比它所产生的作用 。力 在风 涡轮机的 力 情况下, 柱结构通过将其连接到活塞。 向上的力量 传统拉线塔。 在静压塔中, 这完全是 活塞承受机舱和叶片的自重加上侧向力 活塞允许柱子被拉紧, 从而减少压缩 通过将电缆从活塞垂直延伸到中间体来防止 由作用在涡轮叶片和机舱上的静压产生 尽可能纤细, 将其重量降至最低。 一次 拉线, 但在自生塔中, 与经典拉线塔 同, 不 该家伙 它必须承受的负载。 如前所述, 管子要因受力而弯曲 发生横向移动是通过缩短塔, 即塔 钢丝最终将这种横向载荷转化为压缩载荷 完全加压, 除非有 大的 , 更 力 否则气缸无法向下移动 下垂。 这会在晶格结构上施加非常强的压缩载荷 然后使用安装在系泊装置上的绞盘收回增加的长度 弹性模量, 钢会经历轻微的拉伸, 即使 侧面的家伙通过试图压缩管子来防止它, 但不是这个 网站。 请注意, 所经历的这种伸长不是塑性伸长, 因为 装载量 量 远低于产 。 伸长的另一个原因是热 允许塔在安装过程中爬升的余 。量 自我勃起 拉伸低于 1%。 应该注意的是, 通常规定的额定载荷在 导致其直径收缩, 从而增加其长度。 电缆目录通常比广告数量多 5-15%。 这个 弹性伸长率, 顾名思义, 每一种金属都有一个 完全闲置, 完全由 伸长率、 弹性和“结构伸长率”。 如果是 电缆作为来自活塞的压力被允许拉紧电缆足够 活塞。 四根钢丝绳碳钢电缆经历了一定程度的 “结构伸长率”, 当电缆被加载时, 电缆的直径 最大限度地减少松弛, 但绞盘电机允许足够的扭矩 负载时拉伸, 负载系数为断裂强度的 30%, 它将 压缩载荷被传递到管子, 它被传递到活塞 定义加载状态总是安全地低于屈服。 钢中的伸长率 单根线股收缩, 因为它们也变得更紧密, 膨胀, 温度每升高 1 摄氏度, 电缆 通过垂直电缆。 因此, 管子本身只是站在那里 负载低于其屈服阈值的电缆经历两种类型 将拉长 3.3 毫米。 绞盘通过展开来承载任何松弛 尽管如此, 在其他利基应用中, 地面能量收集是其主要应用 陆地上只有少数几个地点的风速超过每秒 9 米。 下面更详细地进一步阐明特征。 当温度为 目标, 因此我们被迫对自然进行一次简短的调查 另一方面, 在 300 米的高度, 周围有许多陆上站点。 1.094。 这比使用标准幂律预测略多 无线电等, 以及潜在的固定龙门起重机。 主要应用 风是速度的三次方, 速度稍微增加一点就非常 这座塔, 它的发明起源, 是风能, 而有 对汽轮机的年发电量产生重大影响。 很遗憾, 当温度下降时发生。 这提供了一个简要概述 陆地风 发力 电。 为了使现有的风 涡轮机技术 力 m/s, 但在 200 米处增加到 10.66。 在 300 米处, 速度 技术, 应用 仅包 不 力 括风 发电, 还包括打桩机, 新颖 更 力 具竞争 , 降低成本, 并产生更多的能源, 能力 增加到 11.65 左右, 或 1.10 倍, 确切的数字大约是 人类居住的高海拔结构, 通讯塔, 细胞, 白天高, 液体的密度略有下降, 风能及其动力学。 不言而喻, 有一个永远 实际利用 高更 速度的风是需要的。 由于能 来自 量 世界风速高达 12 公里/秒。 例如, 使用假设 它占据的体积增加, 导致更 力 大的压 。 反过来 对取之不尽的清洁能源的需求日益增长, 其中一种来源是 位于内布拉斯加州沙丘的站点, 100 米处的平均风速为 8.65 涡轮。 也就是每秒仅增加 3.3 米, 功率 涡轮机。 因为我们的技术提高了平均风速 表面粗糙度, 这个估计来自 USDE 的“项目 产 几乎 量 翻了三倍。 这使涡轮机的潜在收入增加了三倍, 并且 重要的是, 我们正在使容量 不 因子的概念变得 那么有用。 这 看起来比实际 强更 大。 容量因子是 到一千千瓦。 这种从 300 米到 100 米的速度差异 值得花一点时间了解有些模糊 对于这个 40 米的直径, 将产生额外的 5300 兆瓦时 处 风的 理 量 功率输出时的容 因子的概念 怀俄明州大约是 600 英尺(182 遭遇。 200 米处风速每小时变化 “容量因素” 的愚蠢想法可能源于一个聪明但 米)。 使用 Enercon E44 涡轮机, 每台功率输出 8.7 米 根据内布拉斯加州位置的全球风图集估计只有加或 风业为推销机型而设计的欺骗性营销噱头 秒是 340 千瓦左右, 每秒 12 米的功率输出接近 独立” 从 1970 年代研究建造风 涡轮机 力 伴随的投资回报。 除了风速之外, 平均值的负 10%, 使我们的涡轮机能够产生适合电网的电力。 所谓的“容量因子” 是一个任意概念, 使涡轮机看起来 作为 1000 英尺。 他们估计了卡斯帕 1000 英尺处的平均风速 增加海拔的另一个主要好处是减少可变性 效率 如实 不 际, 这是一个需要解散的抽象概念。 在这样的速度下测量它, 因为正态分布的风高斯曲线 一个发电机, 其大小对应于任意功率设置。 这个评分 就像宣传五升排量的汽车发动机能够 只会在很短的时间内产生如此快的风。 容量 风速通常是一个任意选择的速度, 远高于 海拔 300 米。 因此, 每当这个涡轮机安装在一个典型的地点, 它的 力量。 一个微型风 涡轮机可以产生 力 兆瓦, 如果平均风 事实上, 这仅仅是因为涡轮发电机的尺寸明显过大。 速度是每秒 30 米, 但即使 大多数风 涡轮机都在一 力 定的风速下“额定”, 这意味着它们具有 千马力用一个小小的汽车引擎, 但在现实世界中 kW 在正常风况下它会在日常基础上遇到。 这 市场上的密度风 涡轮机, 力 被评为高得离谱的平均风 用汽油运行, 它会产生这么大的动 ,力 即使活塞 容量因子的概念让人困惑, 因为它看起来像机器 每秒 16.5 米的速度, 即使在 和曲轴有足够的强度和尺寸来生产声称的数量 产生一千马力 行 在赛道上运 的亚硝酸盐。 如果我们有 因素是制造商以不切实际的方式简单地测试涡轮机的一种方式 产生的功率比平均风速预测的要少 场地平均风速, 甚至高于偶尔的高峰风速 足够的气缸压力、 冷却液流 和氧化 量 量 剂进气 , 我们可以轻松地 大风, 并声称它产生“500 kW”, 而它只会产生 150 一个典型的站点。 例如, Enercon E-44, 最高功率之一 小于其“额定” 千瓦容量, 因此根据此定义, 它最终会 在许多地区, 风几乎总是以平均 9 级的速度吹 “容量因素” 将是微 足不 道的, 比如 20%。 这就是差异所在 产生的功率比 论上的要少。 理 当然, 越靠近 米每秒, 但没有人能说太阳以“平均” 辐照度照射 风态可能会暂时大大超过平均值 远高于 50-100 的典型轮毂高度 当速度超过交流发电机的发电能力时。 太阳 米。 结果是涡轮机的年功率输出看起来是 总是在一定百分比的时间内产生峰值辐照度, 而在 其 论 高的 理 更 力 速度功率潜 。 不仅仅是 Enercon E-44 定义在一天中的某个时间, 即太阳在高峰时段照射时, 但太阳能的小窗口。 当然, 设计师还是 额定风速 切不 实际, 额定风速通常高达 风 涡轮机 力 不 行 量 需要在高于平均风速的情况下进 测 鼓励稍微加大发电机的尺寸, 这是可以理解的, 因为 许多商用涡轮机每秒 13-15 米, 这显然是 涡轮机的 论理 量 功率和年产 之间出现了 检查, 这个概念是有缺陷的, 因为不像太阳能电池板, 它被评为 速度, 它的大小可以非常接近平均速度并且简单地羽化 1 kW, 因为根据定义, 这仅在一天中的几个小时内发生, 但我们的 通常高达 3 倍, 这意味着涡轮机仅产生三分之一 对于可能的最强烈的日晒期, 这总是发生在 小组需要这个最大容量, 以免浪费这个集中的 安装, 例如在内布拉斯加州 300 米处, 平均风速将 增加的速度以百分比来衡量。 立方关系意味着 在极少数情况下高于平均时间, 并且由于大多数权力是 大约为每秒 11.5-12 米, 每小时的时间变化仅为 增加呈指数增长, 因此风速下降会产生 涡轮机将在一年内产生接近这个数字, 它将 50 米处的风况, 每日变化范围为 0.76 至 18 小时 中值风分布的一半, 风速遵循正常 0 小时时为 1.29。 在高海拔地区, 静压涡轮机 分布, 但通常测量为“威布尔” 分布, 其中每个 修改标准教条, 因为低空涡轮机受制于更多 因为我们可以预期在任何给定的时间只有百分之十的速度下降, 弃。 如果我们的平均风速, 尤其是在高海拔地区, 显示 风 变化 力 较大, 因此需要加大发电机的尺寸。 较低的 这可以通过另一个时间增量的 10% 上升来补偿。 几乎没有明显的变化, 只有每秒 1.2 米的下降或上升, 风速, 时间变化越大, 例如, 在 4.8 m/s 在频谱的高端捕获, 可以理 什 解为 么大多数 +- 10%, 远低于每秒 4 米的速度。 这意味着我们的涡轮机 方立方定律意味着大部分功率在上部产生 功率的相应下降小于风速的同等上升。 涡轮机尺寸过大。 但这正是我们的设计开始的地方 将产生几乎等于平均风速的年发电量, 无论哪种方式, 容量因素的概念都具有误导性, 应该

最大弯曲载荷远低于疲劳强度的钢叶片 弯曲, 因为 是不 叶片根部的抗拉强度, 而是所有应力都在 生产不超过或少于这个。 可能偏离玻璃纤维 限制, 刀片可以随着时间的推移保持高度平滑。 静液压系统有 来自预应力的压缩形式。 注意离心 由铁合金制成的部件本质上必须是“重的”。 是轴 分解, 因为纤维本身没有固有的刚性, 连接点。 离心力使最初弯曲的刀片变直 玻璃纤维的强度取决于其最薄弱的环节: 树脂。 另一方面, 使用 转子旋转时的截面。 预应力用于强烈防止刀片 表面不均匀, 容易 落 出现剥 和麻点。 最大的 装载晶石。 这些经过坚固加工的部分没有机械 在其移动参考系内, 但没有来自静止的力 玻璃纤维的限制是树脂的弱点, 环氧树脂是 紧固件, 它们与电缆的张力保持在一起 参考范围。 有一个非常常见且 正确 不 的假设: 极易受到紫外线引起的降解、 氧化、 霉菌和化学物质的影响 叶片表面的磨损和点蚀是一个臭名昭著的问题 使用预应力电缆设计了一种新型无紧固件刀片系统 弹性连接点, 最大限度地减少应力集中 力仅在参考系中起作用, 它们 会不 “拉” 刀片 玻璃纤维刀片由于显而易见的原因, 玻璃纤维是多孔的并且具有 内部通过坚固机加工的叶片部分, 形成 它的轮毂, 但叶片仍然因离心力的作用而变硬 看起来好像我们的玻璃纤维刀片具有近 600 MPa 的抗拉强度 玻璃纤维聚合物为 14 GPa, 而 4140 钢为 210 GPa。 如果我们比较 高端合金钢比塑料棒“重”? 当然, 1.8 克/立方厘米的密度将远远超过 4140 钢刀片, 一次 剪切模量, 我们发现类似的模式, 玻璃纤维的剪切模量为 10 持续的。 Hydrostatus Systems 将涡轮机设计为完全免费的 典型的玻璃纤维增强聚合物钢筋只有 590 MPa, 但唉 选择了刚度这么差的材料! 如果我们比较杨氏 材料 更 科学比抗拉强度 复杂。 虽然它会 模量 量 (纵向拉伸状态下的变形 度), 必须脱离使用密度作为评估指标, 而是使用特定的 4140 钢的弹性模量为 300 吉帕, 而玻璃纤维为 如果考虑到这些指标, 则根本没有重 优势 量 力量。 高端合金钢的屈服强度超过 gypyg 只有 39. 由于刀片非常细长, 并且必须非常耐 玻璃纤维, 实际上, 如果保持变形率, 玻璃纤维会更重 800 MPa, 而它们的密度通常低于 8 克/立方厘米。 一个 车轴较重, 但如果根据强度进行 不 调整则 会, 这是最终的 我们在其中输入另一个变 :量 弹性模量 量 料 (衡 材 的 弯曲, 人们不 不 什 得 认真思考为 么整整一代设计师 GPa 而 4140 是 80。 拉伸强度是一个没有意义的指标, 除非我们 确定我们需要多少材料来构建一个组件。 一 抗塑性变形), 玻璃纤维 能不 胜过钢铁。 比较与刚度和抗变形有关的指标, 完全由环氧树脂制成, 会因潮湿、 磨损和紫外线而降解 旋转叶片中的弯矩。 离心力不起作用 由短寿命的脆性玻璃纤维复合材 制料 成, 其叶片由 这将刀片的使用寿命限制在最多 20 年。 使用钢材, 参考框架, 因此叶片上的唯一主要负载来自主要 设计。 该应力幅值远低于疲劳极限, 因此可以 粘合剂, 玻璃纤维刀片在其使用寿命短时被填埋。 单个 800 kW 涡轮机以 15 RPM 转速旋转 钢铁可以无限循环利用。 玻璃纤维, 它的刚性 刀片直径 47 米。 这种力量不足以引起 玻璃纤维是一种平庸、 寿命短且劳动密集型的材料, 应该 玻璃纤维, 但经过进一步检查, 这 是一个有效的合 化。 不 理 根据我们的设计标准, 牛顿被放置在展开的刀片上, 这会导致 被免除。 从环保的角度来看, 玻璃纤维是 刀片上将产生的最大应力不 力 是来自刀片的 我们拉线的应力为 250 MPa, 位移为 500 毫米 骇人听闻, 因为没有办法从粘合剂中挽救纤维 高疲劳强度钢。 4140 钢的抗腐蚀性能提高近 8 倍 刀片的使用寿命可延长至至少 30 年, 从而降低 升 导力 致它旋转, 这个 是微 足 力 不 道的, 只有大约 8000 牛顿 可以突然以高迎角击中展开的刀片的阵风 变形比玻璃纤维重, 但仅重四倍。 综上所述, LCOE 更进一步。 疲劳压力 理 通常被认为是选择的 由 从。 对于 55 m/s 的最大风速, 最大 为 力 55,000 毫米, 要达到相同的刚度, 需要与 有害地巩固自己, 以阻止任何偏离 如果具有足够延展性的钢合金, 则在考虑疲劳失效的情况下进行操作 沿翼梁 30 毫米。 没有证据表明调整 规范的方法。 如果我们检查针对金属的“疲劳论点” 飞机机翼由铝制成, 没有疲劳极限, 仅 160 MPa, 提供 5 或更高的安全系数。 最大值 思想或“教条” 通过经验和 预弯曲时叶片上的弯矩约为 500 自发的情况, 但通常, 有缺陷的假设会站稳脚跟, 建造。 刀片由两根 8 毫米厚的带肋 梁 的翼 组成 被认为是选择纤维聚合物复合材料 不 料 而 是经典材 的原因 然而, 在数十万小时内完美无瑕地执行是 每米间隔。 刀片表皮厚度仅为 3.1 毫米 金属材料, 但仔细检查后, 似乎数据很少 证明了金属出色的抗疲劳性。 让我们 要不 忘记 厚的。 尽管刀片的皮肤非常薄, 但最大的 von Mises 应力是 用来。 47 米长的刀片重 3,300 公斤, 由 4140 钢和 对于抗拉强度和弹性, 钢刀片在特定的 来证实这一说法。 在几乎所有 业中, 行 学校 刀片, 我们显然可以通过简单地引用以下事实来嘲笑这种说法 可以使用非常古老的飞机机翼方法轻松构建 实 基力 础。 不带连接的 4140 钢的 S/N 曲线。 疲劳压力 飞机机翼会不断拍打、 弯曲和扭曲, 当叶片不运转时, 风速为每秒 67 米, 是百年一遇的风速 材料最弱: 垂直于纤维的纵向。 它 让我们 要不 忘记, 飞机机翼的设计也有一个因素 furled 低于 200 MPa, 普通操作应力只有 20 或 30 MPa 应该记住, 玻璃纤维或任何纤维增强聚合物是 需要建造成本高昂的大型模具。 站得严严实实 专注于连接和接头, 因此选择预应力叶片 执行刀片的中间紧固。 机械紧固件没用 具有灵活的弹性接头。 一个过程中的最大应力幅 在玻璃纤维结构中, 因为集中载荷的方向 在 500 MPa 的应力幅值以下, 可循环的次数 金属结构的优势: 组合式模块化结构。 模拟这些类型的材料。 鉴于这些独特的属性 没有失败的预期是百亿。 当然, 如果有任何紧固件或焊接 玻璃纤维毕竟是一种纤维材料, 铺设长片编织布 纤维, 刀片必须作为一个单一的部件统一构造, 使用时, 这会大大降低, 因为应力幅值趋于 仅 1.5 的安全性, 这是航空业所能承受的最大质量 来自旋转组件的升 引起 力 的弯曲和扭矩。 除了 由于玻璃纤维太脆, 无法使用整个刀片大小的模具 各向异性, 即其强度在很大程度上取决于 铁合金具有明显的优势, 我们可以转向另一个显着的 任何更高的安全系数都会带来的惩罚。 如果装载 4140 钢 纤维, 这就是为什 不 么经典的有限元方法程序 能 制造梁 肋和 , 可以使用低成本的激光切割设备。 固定回原位, 整个刀片必须报废, 浪费资源 相比之下, 钢制叶片的制造和组装要简单得多。 自从 所有组件均由商业轧钢制成, 可 和人 来建 力 造一个全新的刀片。 由于我们没有 设备或数控加工。 回到有问题的核心技术, 在单个整体中的刀片模块, 存在替代方法, 它们是 金属提供的是进行 力 局部维修的能 。 例如, 想象 更简单, 但会遭受较差的疲劳寿命。 到那个时刻 无人机撞击玻璃纤维刀片, 因为玻璃纤维 能不 简单地切割和 方 地使用手动成 便 型。 单个面板的尺寸很小 去除裂缝等, 钢很容易机械固定。 焊接不 无人机袭击的可能性微乎其微。 个人 CAD 模型 超过 1.2 平方米, 并且可以使用标准轻松操作 可取的, 因为与基线相比, 它会降低疲劳强度 刀片面板, 尺寸在低成本成型范围内 金属制造设备, 尽管或方法是单独加工 刀皮的表皮厚度很小, 单张就可以 以低于每吨 800 美元的价格批发购买。 不同于玻璃纤维 材料, 而铆接或螺栓连接则不然。 另一个关键优势 提到抗断裂性, 玻璃纤维远比钢差, 这意味着 使用标准汽车面板冲压或 至什 更 易容 形成 这需要真空袋装树脂注射和固化, 轧制, 我们的金属刀片将更不 易容 受到鸟击、 点蚀和 目前缺乏应有的能 ,力 一如既往, 因为缺乏 板的增长, 滑辊的成本急剧上升, 使其 本发明的基本合 化理 理 或“存在 由” 是, 由于风 技术。 阻止设计师达到这些的主要限制 完全不经济。 该圆柱体同时受 制造和架设如此重的塔是令人望而却步的, 因此目前 更 力 高速度的潜 以上。 存在几乎无限的潜力 不变, 宽度只是增加了。 常规风 涡轮机塔 力 架 利用这个相对密集和自由能 的巨大水 量 库, 但人类 由冷轧钢桶构成, 并作为厚度 本发明的推动 是力 传统塔式技术无法实现 出于运输原因, 直径必须保持 变。 不 这意味着 为了实现最小程度的刚度, 对于 1 MW 风 涡轮机, 力 以可行且具有成本效益的方式促进这样的高度。 常规钢风 管的厚度随其高度呈指数增加, 以保持 200 米的传统钢塔重达 330 多吨, 造价 涡轮机塔在陆上很少超过 100 米, 浪费了巨大的 由于表面粗糙, 速度向地面迅速衰减, 有 300 米或更 量 高的高速风是重 和伴随成本 如果厚度保持 变, 不 可以达到相同程度的刚性 来自机舱重量的压缩载荷以及拉伸和 传统的钢塔开始急剧升级, 因为 设计新一代高空风 涡轮机的 力 力 强烈动 。 由于静态风载荷, 桅杆弯矩产生的压缩载荷。 密度和 EROI(密切相关) 一直是核裂变, 但是由于该重量的很大一部分集中在塔中 陆上枢纽高度保持在 100 米左右或以下的做法 氘氚聚变是唯一可以想象的能源技术 结构, 并且由于额定输出仅限于低空慢风, 500 千瓦涡轮机的吨重加上大约 40 吨的最大 使用这种优雅的结构, 材料减少和随后的功率 朗肯煤电厂平均使用 98 吨钢和 160 吨 风能密度显着提高。 能源基准 每兆瓦混凝土。 传统的风 涡轮机使用的 力 不远 止这些, 需要更好的解决方案, 本发明的目的是 于便 设计 发电厂。 事实证明, 平均加压光 功率密度急剧上升。 如上所述, 260 吨的重量 使用轻型低成本结构的高空风 涡轮机 力 1970 年代在美国建造的水反应堆使用了大约 45 有效载荷管只有 15 吨, 这 130 吨的有效载荷足以承受 24- 采用上述静水 原 。 力 理 可以肯定的是, 通过 涡轮机。 造一个 300 米的独立塔的成本甚至不 超过它。 但实际上, 加压水中的裂变反应堆 吨钢和 120 吨混凝土每兆瓦电力 量容 。 这 当承重塔结构被取消和 高的风 更 估计它的重量会超过 500 吨。 鉴于这些限制, 一个 配置实际上具有比柴油或燃气轮机更低的功率密度 考虑到速度, 所需钢材显着减少, 因为 只有 Hydrostatus 高压塔技术。 那个观念 旧的沸水和加压水结构。 俄罗斯“燃气轮机” 来自 120 英里/小时风态的空气动 载力 荷。 这个功率密度 核能具有最高的功率密度, 只有在 模块化氦反应堆” 需要与 1970 年代 PWR 一样多的钢材。 如果 假设更高级的复杂性因素 能 ,量 以实现几乎与最先进技术一样高或相等的功率密度 与整个辅助和遏制系统进行比较。 请注意, 许多 核电厂和燃煤电厂简直是惊人的和可实现的 的“新一代” 反应堆每兆瓦使用的钢量与 水平轴风电的功率密度优于固体 需要高安全系数, 这会导致大量 料材 或风车, 但最终使用的材料与低级风车一样多 蒸汽循环中的碳氢化合物燃烧! 这是一个令人印象深刻的壮举 要求。 如果检查一张核反应堆剖面图 发电一千瓦, 得问值 值不 工程。 风能系统的能 ,力 收获自由陆地 转化为实际低于 1970 年代 PWR 的钢材需求 每克铀释放的热 是巨大的, 量 但需要 图中, 人们会注意到实际的反应堆核心是一个很小的东西 如此复杂而先进的技术, 先进到了如此地步 大约是燃煤电厂的三分之一。 这意味着高海拔 满足保守规定的遏制结构转化为 不可否认的令人印象深刻和优雅, 远远超过燃煤机 状态“应力腐蚀” 用超声波分析检测到, 这 是不 可扩展性, 即使发生受限融合的可能性 大, 不 也不会 技术。 但也要记住, 核反应堆不仅 本质上是由中子脆化引起的, 病因很可能是 是生产所需的锂 6 的能 ,力 所以它显然看起来好像 有效载荷能 ,力 容易受到风引起的摇摆和疲劳失效, 以及 在其管道系统中经历腐蚀, 导致总共 金属因脆化而退化。 这些的全球储备 机队 56 人中有 12 人被迫下线。 虽然官方报道 与钕不同, 各自的元素对裂变设置了明确的上限 防止中子脆化的成分, 以及用于包层的锆。 脆化, 它还诱导内部的元素转变和迁移 技术, 通信塔市场是主要的第一个应用程序 中子脆化是裂变能的致命弱点, 目前的 EDF 合金以及晶粒结构的负面演变。 饲养员 静压塔技术。 目前的拉线桅杆系统非常糟糕 船队被视为成功的压水堆船队的典范, 目前正在 使用钢, 他们需要铍进行中子反射以保护工人, 追溯到某种形式的中子晶粒结构减弱 反应堆, 由于其 高的中子 更 量通 , 将经历更快的速度 低矮的风车将在无碳氢化合物能源中发挥关键作用 铪用于吸收中子, 铌用于堆芯合金化 轰击。 中子轰击金属不仅会导致 可以预见的将来。 除了有前景的风能应用 该技术还消除了对昂贵且危险的旋翼飞机的需求 立方。 这意味着随着涡轮机尺寸的增大, 其质量相对于功率 架设起来很麻烦。 100 米范围内的大多数拉线桅杆能够 勃起。 静压塔的设计变 。量 一些有趣的 呈指数增长。 如果一个 40 米直径 550 kW 涡轮机的质量是 小型涡轮机, 但有一个实际限制。 首先, 由于每个涡轮机必须 更 更 量 重 高容 的天线或放置沉重的长期电池 功率输出与面积成正比, 面积的平方为 消除对备用发电机或任何电源的需求。 规模函数, 而叶片、 机舱和塔架的材料 量质 在确定必须遵守的设计标准方面发挥重要作用。 从一个 相同直径和重量的塔可以承载几十吨, 许多订单 线性), 质量增加 8 倍至 192 吨, 但功率仅增长到 数量级超过钢格结构。 这有可能完全 从材料使用的角度来看, 很明显, 风 涡轮机 力 希望成为 2260 kW, 或四倍。 所以这似乎表明我们应该设计非常 改造通信塔 业, 行 让设计人员能够将 仅承受 45 kg 天线重量, 不 量 包括维护重 几何和数学现象对设计施加了限制 尽可能小以达到最高的功率密度。 这很明显, 因为 比如说 24 吨, 如果扫过区域的直径增加一倍, 那么 工人。 借助 Hydrostatus System 的自张紧塔技术, 技术。 表面体积比和表面长度比起着重要作用 主要组件, 其大小是其负载的函数(可缩放 关于维护和可维修性, 有些人可能会怀疑如何 技术人员可以将吊钩固定在他的安全带上, 然后自己站起来 使用重型设备挖掘地基进行维修和安装, 以及 如此狭窄的塔可能允许一个人参观机舱 在塔的一侧。 与这项技术相比, 没有什么比 因为破坏很容易通过切断电源线或在 保持电缆角度 变, 不 在我们的例子中, 理想的电缆最大 始终安装在涡轮平台上。 一个沉重的沙袋被悬挂 稳定性为 55 到 60 度, 理想间距为直径的 8 倍 从起重机允许它远程下降到地面水平, 其中 每个涡轮机。 使用静压塔, 有一个非常方 的因素是 便 技术人员可以松开后齿轮箱外壳并将其降低到地面 如果拉线被切断或恐怖分子向柱子开火 帮助我们确定涡轮机的尺寸。 由于我们想尽 减量 量 少系泊的数 等级。 为了到达涡轮机平台, 使用升降机而 是不 梯子, 这 口径弹药。

传统涡轮机也存在同样的漏洞 电缆的站点, 我们可以简单地找到两个塔之间的距离 连接电缆, 大 的微 量 型涡轮机将 进行维修。 虽然我们提出的当前涡轮机设计确实 更安全, 更快捷。 一个起重机, 很像救援直升机, 被保留 传统的涡轮机会损害安全性。 由于没有印章, 因为 不使用封闭的机舱, 它具有一个安全的步 平行 台, 从该平台 不切实际的。 因此, 对于设计的意义, 有一个明确的底线 静水介质包含在密封系统中, 故障只能 在其设计中起重要作用的管径。 虽然风 负载。 在 8 兆帕的压 下, 力 理想的直径为 450-500 毫米, 可能导致发电机起火的机舱。 另一个非常强大的 管子的负载很容易 力 由活塞上的静水压 承受, 这 在高雷诺数下给出 0.4 的低阻力系数, 并允许 确定涡轮质量和管道承载之间的最佳平衡 下降到地面, 拉线缩回地下 常数, 随着管子直径的增加, 它的活塞面积到润湿面积 绞盘。 在静压塔的情况下, 还有另一个因素与 大幅增加, 让设计师携带 多更 的风和死 静压管上的风 将力 力 超过活塞上的向上 检查、 维护和大修的水平, 无需使用单个 500-1000 kW 涡轮机将遇到, 如果涡轮机尺寸减小, 起重机。 工人在安全的混凝土筒仓中操作 即使在非常高的压 下。 力 由于管润湿面积与活塞之比 管的承载效率下降到不理想的水平。 这引导我们 连续移除管段, 直到整个单元被提升 静压塔技术提供的优势是能够执行 仅当长度/直径比足够低时才会出现这种情况。 如果 表面积与直径成正比, 因为长度保持 变不 设计在结构上放置多达 300 吨。 450mm 毫米 快速塔下降, 整个涡轮机可以下降到地面 允许长径比超过某个阈值, 则 直径为 8 至 10 MPa 的管子非常适合承载所有负载 随海拔高度: 如果使用高密度液压油, 则压 大 力更 产生的氮几乎没有, 每公斤不到 5 美分。 #2 效率。 另一个更详细提到的因素是风荷载 由于重 加力 速度会产生梯度。 底部有液体 重心: 在我们讨论阻力 量 之前的另一个设计变 是 定义在活塞正上方, 稳定支架必须越宽 空气动力 力 学和阻 , 必须强调流体的选择 氮。 氮气的成本等于电力消耗和资本 极大地影响了塔的最终性能。 #1 压力梯度 变压吸收装置的支出。 自我的现实成本 对于 300 米, 氮气为 3.9 个大气压, 或 0.013 巴/米。 这 尺寸低于 3 毫米, 它们的阻力 力 可能超过其额定负载能 , 横向拉索和四根垂直约束索。 离得越远 这有效地为静压拉线的尺寸设置了下限 平均场地温度 7°C 时, 8.5 MPa 时的氮气密度为 110 风 涡轮机的 力 弯矩来自重心, 由 结构或任何电缆结构。 在我们讨论之前 家伙电缆。 涡轮机越小, 所需的向上力越小 塔将被其上方流体的重量压缩。 对于气体 公斤/立方米。 气体总体积的质量约为 5,300 kg 稳定或扭转平台的设计。 稳定平台是 静压管, 这意味着可以使用非常小的电缆。 但如果电缆 压缩到中等压 ,力 压力梯度为 100 kg/m3 将活塞的向上压力 力 转换为四个张 的组件 直径, 物理尺寸增加, 增加雷诺数 米每秒风 。暴 一根 460 毫米的管道在 8 MPa 下产生 127 是将涡轮的弯矩传递给垂直方向的张力 并减少阻力载荷。 这表明设计师应该倾斜 吨的 , 力量 足以弥补其 大的风 更 荷载。 在一个 压缩到液压缸水平压 ,力 例如超过 300 bar, 圆柱体的直径越大, 我们产生的力就越大 长度为 10 米, 便于在筒仓中组装。 这 必须承受的阻力。 随着圆柱体的增长 内部加强筋可防止在 67 岁时弯曲超过 0.55 毫米 底座隔离机构的形式, 以防止过度横向移动 享有字面上更稳定的优势, 需要 少的 更 安全性基于 4140 钢的 6.25 屈服强度。 一个关键的考虑因素 从被转移到对塑料 力 密封件施加压 的活塞上。 #3 稳定中间拉索以防止其在风中弯曲。 选择合适的静压介质取决于其自重。 由于空气 静压介质和最佳压 的力 选择: 如前所述, 电缆并防止对面电缆过度松弛, 因为 朝向较低压力但稍大的管道, 但仍然足够窄 带有内部加强筋的主压 柱。 力 每列部分设置在一个 壁厚 5 毫米, 管内的 von Mises 应力 平台略微向下倾斜。 还有一个选项可以放置一些 在伸缩筒仓中 于易 理 制造和处 。 更宽的油管也 横向加强织带在 8 MPa 压 下仅为 力 160 MPa, 提供 在柱中原位生产。 氮气的另一个核心优势 兑现承诺。 使用氟塑料密封件, 摩擦系数为 0.04 具有与液压油相似的密度, 只有在以下情况下使用气体才有意义 变压吸收产生的能 是提供 力 力 应急的能 典型的, 在气缸壁侧, 高度抛光的金属, 具有足够的 密封材料, 但将密封件向外推到的 的大小 力 管, 因为对于较大体积的管道, 重量会过大。 这 活塞在气缸内往复运动。 实际上, 这可以说是 静压介质的最佳选择是纯氮, 它可以很 宜便 我们的必要条件, 如果我们 能不 做到这一点, 结构就无法生存 它非常有吸引力, 但仅在高压下。 因此, 气体几乎总是 涡轮机的自重。 #4 密封选项和泄漏: 至关重要的是 比仅抛光钢的系数低。 摩擦量 最适合大直径低压配置。 校长 最大限度地减少活塞和气缸之间发生的摩擦量 活塞所经历的 仅是 不 摩擦系数的函数 液压油的缺点是只能用于小体积 操作压力相对较低, 否则, 优越的性能 在发生小泄漏时产生气体, 现场发生器可以泵送 墙壁, 以确保在之前只能将少 负载 量 转移到管道上 厚油膜也提供低于 0.04 的摩擦系数。 进一步 液体的高粘度、 较大的分子尺寸、 低泄漏等, 使 氮气进入色谱柱以保持最低压力 减少摩擦, 可以使用先进的缸套材料, 提供 摩擦。 需要强调的是, 虽然摩擦是 可取的, 不 但它只是 消除泄漏。 设计气动或液压装置是完全可能的 气缸。 将摩擦降至最低, 同时仍提供 如果有轻微的压力损失或峰值风, 会对结构造成风险 活塞是完全密封的, 只要它不需要高 在要包含的介质(在这种情况下为气体) 和用作介质的介质之间 力量。 气体泄漏和可容忍的摩擦之间存在明显的权衡, 每分钟泄漏升数, 相当于大约 1.3 kWh 的用电量 密封越多, 密封越紧, 泄漏越少, 但泄漏越大 再压缩。 需要注意的是, 一个简单的设计特征完全可以 密封件和下面的压力介质之间的熔断隔板。 如果力 总向上力总是超过活塞, 这是 可能的 不 提供所需的拉伸距离。 在密封活塞设计中, 一个 对于 460 毫米密封件, 作用在密封件上的 为 力 10,000 磅, 摩擦力仅为 结构将任何载荷转移到周围的圆柱体, 除非流体 系列承压球形柔性膜片可作为隔板 400 磅, 这意味着管子只能承受 400 磅的垂直 低泄漏, 最好防止气动或液压介质 负载会产生接近或超过总负载的瞬时负载 发生减压。 因此, 权衡取舍以接受大约 250 垂直往复自由度。 一个传统的气缸旨在 从完全压在墙上的密封, 这可以通过有一个 静水向上 。力 由于根据定义, 任意摩擦力 往复相当程度, 禁止灵活的隔膜 密封圈到气缸上。 管道部分装有一系列这些 force 等于 0, 因为分区是自由浮动的并且具有相等的 “反流体”, 一种不混溶的流体, 例如离子液体。 活塞密封 可以压缩或拉长的柔性密封套管或隔膜 作用在活塞和气缸上的静水压 。力 主要的 用于实现纯密封的弹性体柔性往复密封 补偿和重建平衡。 这种设计使气动 在这种设计中连续循环工作表的压缩机头不是 或液压活塞通过向外按压而 会产生 不 摩擦 往复运动, 它只能在过载的情况下移动。 摩擦 由于顶部的主要负载, 主缸中的压 ,力 由高弹性材 制料 量 成的等 扁平金属片阵列。 每个 达到流体平衡。 1985 年王群获得中国专利 气缸内的气体将被压缩并流动以取代气缸 板材厚 0.2 毫米, 提供充足的垂直弯曲, 板材是 题为“柔性无泄漏液压缸” 的 CN85205373U 描述了一种 低压离子液体。 发生这种情况时, 可以泵送离子液体 此时 再不 是密封, 而是半悬空的自由浮动隔板 随活塞向下, 但不能横向膨胀。 数组 仅承受 100 MPa 的拉伸应力。 与隔膜不同的疲劳寿命 静压流体(在这种情况下为氩气) 被压缩到 70 bar, 而 空气和半液体在几乎相同的压 下。 力 如果有增加 隔膜将气动或液压的力通过 离子液体被加压到相同程度, 防止任何交换 悬挂管。 Hydrostatus System 的新型无泄漏活塞密封。 #5 相关性 大。 不 美国中西部最高气温 液压缸。 使用柔性的现有技术很少 热密度波动。 使用气体的一个明显缺点是它的变化 变化为 11 摄氏度, 而平均表面温度为 7 摄氏度 温度通量, 如果内部加热器可能需要一个内部加热器 静压结构, 活塞 往不 复运动, 它只能允许 氩气的密度从 172 公斤减少到 118 公斤。 当然, 典型的昼夜 发生严重超载时, 以防止任何力转移到 气温变化很少超过 10 度, 所以这么大的范围是 压力 理 量 管 系统以应对热通 。 对于塔在 承受静水载荷并为往复运动提供足够的自由度 11 度的温度变化, 282 到 293 K, 密度变化微乎其微 5% 运动产生了一种独特的物质动力学挑战, 这可能解释了 300m, 顶部温度下降 3 摄氏度, 平均 将发生在氩气中。 在地 上理 更 具有 清晰的昼夜 为什么这种奇特的设计在传统气缸中几乎没有用处。 在一个 纯密封的液压密封。 材料 不 的选择 断 密度随温度变化。 密度的变化影响总 温度将是 1.5 度。 在零下 30 摄氏度到 40 度之间 根据海拔高度调整负 3 度。 这意味着如果平均温度 循环弹性密封将是相当具有挑战性的, 需要同时 活塞上的静水压 。力 设计者必须实现一个常量 白天是 20 度, 夜幕降临时气温下降到 9 度。 晒黑 或微孔绝缘。 氩气和氮气的密度表。 在 280 K (4 发电机以 1500-1800 RPM 运行, 电流为 2000 安培, 这 管道要保温。 将 4,200 公斤的氩气升高 50 度 C)、 氮气的密度仅为 99 kg/m3。 #6 电源线选择。 在 需要四根 1000 MCM 电缆, 每根电缆在 60 摄氏度时的额定电流约为 560 安培。 添加。 鉴于所有这些突出的设计紧迫性, 迄今为止最 使用, 加热它需要更 量 多的能 , 所以使用它可能 可取 更 此外, 标准感应或同步电机的运 速行 度仅为 400 氩气, 并用岩棉绝缘材料 行 简单地对管道内部进 绝缘 伏特, 这需要很大的载流 。量 对于 1000 kW 400v 同步 氮的热容量是其三倍 电压降和电缆尺寸以及电缆尺寸与温度的关系。 由于我们的涡轮 裸露的 1000 MCM 电缆为 0.45 kg/m, 或总共 540 kg。 在铝 密度变化较小, 这表明它的使用将是可取的 比大多数高得多, 我们必须携带 多更 的导体 价格为 2.8 美元/公斤, 电缆为涡轮机增加了 1,500 美元, 这是微 足不 道的 热波动更严重的区域。 虽然如果氮气是 由于其低热容量, 仅需要 18 千瓦。 我们可以得出结论 乍一看, 传输电缆似乎是一个小问题, 但有 由于 大的 更 电阻, 会遇到 大的 更 电压降。 电压降约为 5% 或 21 伏, 每小时热通量为 安全地, 热波动及其对密度的影响可以忽略不计。 导体选择的一些细微差别, 包括在 每根电缆 5 kWh, 将其温度提高 40 摄氏度。 的重量 有意外的负载。 如果更 量 多的电缆质 , 这个余 可以 量 增加 该结构的额定速度已设置为每秒 67 米或每秒 150 英里 重要的设计变 是量 承受发生的静态风荷载 可以接受。 在最大风况下叶片上的风载荷 小时。 在具有特征线性尺寸(表面到 分子撞击身体的动能, 而在低速时 100,000 公斤。 氩气作用在活塞上的总向上力 阻力系数为 0.39, 速度为 25 m/s, 雷诺数为 862,000。 在 在 7.5 MPa 时为 128,000 公斤, 额外提供 20,000 公斤的交易 量余 现实中, 雷诺数会高得多, 因为最大风 涡轮模块被枢转以迎风迎风。 Yang 等人 2021 年测试了一个 完全由 4140 钢制成的 780 kW 12 m/s 涡轮机微 足不 道 和内力, 这就是广泛使用的雷诺数试图 仅 25,000-30,000 公斤, 而塔架和上部的总风荷载 风 中 同 洞 不 量 直径的钢管数 量化。 在高雷诺数下, 阻力 力 主要是内部阻 , 即 框架重量为 71,000 公斤, 相当于塔架结构的总负载 在罕见的阵风中。 55 m/s 假设是静态的, 当叶片 速度和雷诺数, 发现 250 毫米管经历了 体积) 的 0.11 米, 雷诺数正好是 450,000, 产生 涡轮模块的涡轮自重相对 以零攻角羽化。 在最大风态期间, 非常低的阻力系数 0.357。 阻力是由粘性的组合引起的 从摩擦通过的流体, 从惯性冲击它的流体, 通常使用投影面积计算。 这意味着将其 2D 由流过的流体的摩擦或粘性阻力引起 以及由于用尽而导致的背部减压 横截面积, 略低于润湿面积的三分之一。 后 根据以下数据, 一根 3/8 英寸的电缆有一个阻力系数 作为扭力支架, 可以使用平板拖动或简单的静风 投影面积) 或润湿面积。 湿区的使用通常用于 力, 在 67 m/s 时为 278 kg/m2。 纤细的身体正在经历摩擦 高度细长的机身, 例如机身, 而圆柱体和钝体 只有额叶的一小部分。 在计算阻力系数时, a 柱和电缆, 在柱上, 阻力主要是内部的, 而 平滑电缆在 30 m/s 时约为 1.1。 横向支撑电缆只有 7 流动非常湍流, 而在电缆上由于非常低的线性 造成混淆和误判的常见原因是参考问题 毫米直径, 因此只能产生 7500 的雷诺数。 尺寸, 流动是粘性的并且不是高度湍流。 对于像这样的钝体 身体。 在非常高的速度下, 高于音速, 空气是可压缩的, 这 流体的动 ,量 导致前方较高的压力推动身体 区域。 参考面积计算为正面面积(平面面积或 风荷载已经计算在主要结构部件上, 我们 称为压力 力阻 。 对于具有管状的高海拔结构 进入它后面的低压区。 对于圆柱体, 静压区为 必须计算我们拉线的阻力。 20mm 的风阻系数 与较小直径的压 柱力 相比, 阻力更小 系数随着直径的减小和速度的降低而增加。 这 雷诺数为 5600 时约为 1.146。 下面的数字是 电缆。 每根主承重钢丝绳索直径为 40mm, 电缆上的拖曳载荷最终转化为产生的张力 正朝着其前倾姿态的方向行动, 将采取 动拉动 行 电缆尺寸增加, 因为雷诺数随着表面的降低而增加 阻力 力 作为其额定负载能 的一部分作为表面体积 体积比(特征长度) 所以主要负载保持电缆 减少。 阻力是湿表面积的线性函数, 阻力 电缆直径以及攻角。 如果角度减小到 45 阻力系数约为 0.7。 因此阻力为 8,000 在地锚上。 由于风荷载只能作用于单一方向 度, 3/8 中空编织聚乙烯电缆的阻力系数下降 最大遇到风速, 或总负载能 的 力 7% 有一次, 电缆从其后部接收风荷载, 即风 雷诺数为 17,000 时约为 0.5。 阻力系数下降为 来自国防技术信息中心网站上的一份报告。 在 67 m/s 时的特征尺寸为 0.0099 米, 因此具有 112,000 公斤。 电缆的直径越小, 份额越大 当风穿过电缆和 测量 不 是在 同的雷诺数(空气速度) 和 雷诺数为 43,000, 因为电缆的攻角为 55 度, 产生吸力, 电缆想要拉长, 施加拉伸载荷 主涡轮组件和液压管上的风 。力 而 是不 在如此低风况下, 传统塔式涡轮机的功率密度为 电缆从地面, 在塔上没有负载。 电缆是 使用产生巨大阻力的大型矩形机舱, 会很差, 但即使在这种糟糕的风态下, EROI 也是 置于主液压管下方, 用于承载液压力 塔, 索风荷载可以假定为由 一个非常重的风 涡轮机, 力 有一个 50 米的笨重钢塔, 放置在一个低矮的地方 地面结构。 然后设计者必须设计塔以承受 风况, 比如每秒 6 米, 可能会产生负 EROI。 这 预计将在临时 55 m/s 状态期间遇到。 投资回报率 首先是塔, 但最终还是由锚承担, 因为这个负载是 最大的建筑材料。 对于我们的涡轮机, 混凝土用于承载 作为张力转移到后部电缆, 然后将其转移到 分析。 自然能量收集的批评者提出了一些主张 来自横向拉索的向上 ,力 而中心垫基础 后锚。 因此, 在设计高空拉线液压 承受与倾角相反方向作用的正面风荷载, 可采用直径 200m+管状格子结构保持阻力 试图举出负面 EROI 证据的系统。 可以想象的是 经过几年的运营, 仍然会收支平衡。 风 涡轮机是 力 静 将力 从上到下拉动电缆, 在 系数低于 0.5, 尤其是在湍流雷诺数较高的情况下 主要由钢建造, 混凝土大量进入 大约 50 吨混凝土被用作保守估计。 混凝土有 (海外制造到沿海主要港口), 卡车将消耗 600 将向下的力施加在垫上并将其分配到土壤中。 坚硬的粘土 平均隐含能源为 1250 千瓦时/吨, 总计 62,000 千瓦时 单程升, 因此两次往返总共消耗 2250 升。 额外消耗 50,000 kWh 电能来为 形状像卫星天线的锚, 利用压实粘土的密度 也包括在内。 在这种情况下, 一辆 53 英尺的半卡车可以在两次 程中 行 承载向上的载荷, 而 是使用大 的 不 量 混凝土。 所以总的来说, 整个涡轮机组装到现场。 假设行驶距离为 1000 英里 在 550-780 kW 涡轮机的情况下大约是 130 吨, 所以我们需要 组件为 350,000 千瓦时。 发电机中的铜绕组可以 压力需要 780 kWh。 切割、 焊接和焊接的能源成本 大约 60 平方英尺(直径 8 英尺) 的混凝土垫来承受我们的负荷。 这 也包括在内, 但体现的能 是最小的, 量 因为发电机 可以估计制造叶片、 齿轮箱和辅助部件 垫深 5 英尺, 重 20 吨。 对于拉线锚, 我们使用钢 具有 5000 PSF 的承载能 ,力 作用在端部的向下力 涡轮。 钢估计约为 50 MJ, 或 14 kWh/kg。 我们的涡轮机 仅重约一吨。 制造和运输成本应 柴油燃 的料 密度为 850 kg/m3, 因此 1910 kg 燃烧释放 管道等于向上的 ,力 等于管道的直径。 力量 使用大约 25 吨钢, 因此金属中蕴含的能量 22,900 千瓦时。 将塔内的氮气从常压泵抽至 10 MPa 30 年使用寿命内的小时数, 不 更 包括变速箱 换或刀片 允许通过接地模块中的开口。 的底部 电火花机和数控铣床。 总粗 翻新。 自立式筒仓的工作原 现在我们可以 理 转向 管被放置在一个特殊的可移动接头上, 该接头插入压缩氮气 要访问的管子进行连接。 为了促进这一过程, 一系列 涡轮机为 300 时的寿命 EROI, 即 500,000 千瓦 允许将新的管段拧入或锁定到位。 第一管 投入生产机器的小时产生 150,000,000 千瓦 部分插入地下筒仓, 然后管的末端 直径, 涡轮机将保守地产生约 5,000,000 千瓦时 被称为“自架设”, 从而可以将气管缓慢地安装到位 它的最大缩回, 另一个被插入。 为实现这一目标, 一年, 因此立即明显地声称 EROI 为负 从单个 15 米长的部分与一个新颖的地下筒仓, 允许 压缩氮气必须被包含, 同时还允许结束 不正确, 但它们可能适用于非常不合适的安装条件。 估计蕴含能 为 量 515,000 千瓦时。 涡轮机的容量为 静压塔的最后亮点和核心竞争优势 流体静力介质在任何给定时间保留在管中, 同时 管内。 可移动的配件用四个电缆绞盘抬起, 直到它 除了提高能源产量外, 还可以通过技术。 这是执行什 力 么的能 这种安装尺寸从 550 到 780 kW 不等, 具体取决于确切的刀片 一直延伸到最大缩回点。 当管子到达 从新插入的一个。 在达到此压力平衡时, 需要强调的重要事实, 因为即使对压力 力 施加了一些 压力遏制机构安装在管的外部。 管可以螺纹连接或锁定在一起, 密封内部气体。 气体 从顶部的活塞柱, 说密封失效, 有一些 技术、 其设计要求及其应用, 不仅包括 从底部。 装满后, 取下上封板 活塞, 但不 力 传递向下的 , 如果压力增加和或 允许前一个管内的压缩气体与气体合并 电缆张力降低, 整个模块垂直爬升。 这是个 密封气体。 然后对主压力 行 容器模块进 吹扫, 连同攀爬活塞一起拉动管子, 塔就可以升起 滑块连接。 当然, 如果两个密封都失效了, 那么管子可以 打开, 允许将另一个管子引入内部。 然后是模块 一天, 无需昂贵的起重机。 由于整个压力 体验压缩。 本文简要概述了 密封在管的参数周围。 然后将管子装满并密封 当管子伸出顶部的压力容器模块时 然后再次净化安全壳模块内部并重复该过程。 当电缆连接到活塞时, 柱子有效地“悬挂” 在活塞上 摩擦, 活塞不能被压缩或承受任何负载, 因为它 地下设施, 压力容器板放置在下方 为了提升塔, 允许活塞与管一起爬升, 通过 在底部相同的无摩擦密封处往复运动, 它完全是一个 裂变 380 亿。 这是一个令人印象深刻的壮举对于一个甚至没有 灯, 以尽 减量 少碰撞的风险。 也建议大 风 发力 电, 但打桩机, 新型人类高海拔结构 早在 1990 年代就存在于雷达上。 到 2030 年, 风电行业预计 装有这些涡轮机的风电场要在空域上做标记。 为了 嘈杂, 通常被认为是一种审美上的麻烦, 他们很少 甚至比全球燃气轮机市场还要大, 后者的估值为 22 军用喷气机经常训练的空军基地。 需要注意的是, 刚刚 亿, 蒸汽轮机 160 亿, 柴油发电机, 200 亿, 核能 就像在通讯塔上一样, 电缆可以安装在高能见度的地方 工业将发展到新的高度。 期望大多数人并非没有道理 发电部门, 超过个别热的规模 与刀片和塔架发生碰撞, 因为拉索 发电部门, 包括布雷顿和兰金。 全球风 涡轮机 力 涡轮机在合适的地方使用该技术。 可能有某些区域 由于使用了明亮的 LED 灯, 它们同样可见。 作为风 涡轮机 力 截至 2020 年, 市场价值 550 亿, 与光伏和 住宅、 通讯塔、 蜂窝、 无线电等, 也可能用于 增长到 1000 亿以上。 采用全新的彻底改进的塔式技术, 斜拉索的存在是绝对 能不 接受的, 比如在 大多数情况下, 拉线的存在或缺乏, 几乎没有 固定式龙门起重机。 风 涡轮机 业是最大的 力 行 行 单体 业之一 将单个涡轮机的年产 提高 量 3 倍, 差异, 因为风 涡轮机 力 叶片已经占据了空域开始 压 ,力 很有可能达到对现实世界的高保真估计 将预测与现实分开, 但这些差异不会超过 在郊区或城市地点获得批准。 仅有 2% 的美国土地被 性能完全在纸上。 53 年前土星五号的首次发射 可接受的余 。量 该技术 使用 不 料 外来材 , 根据积累的经验估计, 钢在压 下的 为 力 行 看起来和纸上或模拟程序上的一样好, 但与人的 建议是使用以下知识可实现的最高保真度 提供材 、料 摩擦、 空气动力学、 腐蚀和 当代文学, 总会有在这个领域学到的东西 风能往往更让人想起海洋, 但即使在欧洲, 在现实生活中进行了测试, 这个测试意味着假设任一成功 自阿基米德和维特鲁威时代以来, 人类就已了解, 超过两 大多数涡轮机仍然安装在农村牧场, 那 唯里 一生活 造成人员伤亡的灾难性故障, 这意味着其所做的所有估计 千年前。 它使用的材料 易 的特性可以很容 地 打扰的动物是牛。 当然, 在“现实世界” 中, 并非一切 人类生活在被定义为“城市” 的地方, 其余的则成为牧场, 具有多种级解耦、 涡轮泵轴承或机身 设计师必须是正确的。 在这项技术中进行的计算 机械装置或电子装置, 它由地球上丰富的材 制料 成 自然公园、 政府土地、 森林, 当然还有农业。 在欧洲, 结构动力学, 在此之前无法以 100% 的准确度“模拟” 用百年 法。 老 它利用原 (流 理 力 体静 ) 和智慧, 只有千古不可救药的人间固执, 或他们的小圈子。 没有什么能阻止它的部署, 但缺乏远见、 想象 、力 嫉妒真正有用的创新并非来自他们 很容易模拟, 钢丝绳的伸长也是如此。 总之, 另一个有害因素既得利益和傲慢的 业高 行 管 厌恶变化、 我们的宗教本性以及对新事物的恐惧 这种技术或任何其他真正新颖的发明的方式。 存在为

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